The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 67, July 1963 - April, 1964 Page: 615
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hostility of the Kickapoos for all white penetration and asso-
Some of the highlights of Kickapoo history were: serving as
mercenaries for the French in the 174o's against the Chickasaws
and Natchez; joining with the Ottawa chieftain, Pontiac, in the
Algonquian resistance against the British; avenging Pontiac's
death in 1769; and their pro-Spanish policy leading to partial set-
tlement west of the Mississippi.
By 1775, they were sought by both English and American agents
as allies. They were drawn to the "Long Knives" after George
Rogers Clark took Kaskaskia in July, 1778, some serving as scouts.
As American settlement penetrated their territory, their maraud-
A long period of strife began as the Algonquian tribes were
pushed west by the Americans, continuing into the Black Hawk
outbreaks of 1828-1831. Included in this period were the Chick-
asaw-Osage campaigns, the Tecumseh wars and the scattering of
the tribes after the Battle of Tippecanoe. William Henry Harri-
son proposed "a war of extirpation upon them." Tecumseh, aiding
the British in the War of 1812, directed the movements of the
Kickapoos and other tribes. Governor Ninian Edwards of Illinois
Territory was forced to fight them and others and to drive them
In 1819, United States commissioners encouraged the Illinois
and Wabash Kickapoos to meet in council and surrender their
lands. By 1834, the last of the Kickapoos left their old range,
many settling in Missouri. Quarrels followed with the Osages and
the Kickapoos became a menace to the entire Southwest as they
scattered widely, even into Texas and into Mexico.
Sad indeed were the experiences of the Kickapoos with the
Kansas Land Sharks. In 1839, with the Cherokees and others, they
were driven out of Texas, some northward to the Washita and Red
rivers, some southwestward into Mexico. Raids from both north
and south continued into Texas.
Students of Texas history would not agree that the Kickapoos
were "Texas' Greatest Enemy" (Chapter 14). Granted that the
Kickapoos did much damage in the 185o's and that Indian Agent
Robert S. Neighbors blamed them for many depredations-includ-
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 67, July 1963 - April, 1964, periodical, 1964; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101197/m1/693/: accessed February 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.