The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 68, July 1964 - April, 1965 Page: 129
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educational history is not unique in its pattern," Carter wrote,
"but it may be unique in the light of the special problems en-
countered." The writer's specific objective is to show that Free-
masonry is "one of the most potent forces" that shaped the de-
velopment of the educational system of Texas. He makes a good
case for his thesis up to his cut off date of 1846, when Texas joined
the Union. Carter has a second volume in process which should
further the cause he espouses.
Carter divided his book into two sections. Part I deals with
education in Colonial Texas and encompasses the Spanish and
Mexican period. If the presentation of the Spanish era is skimpy,
it is only because material is lacking. Miguel Ramos de Arispe is
the brightest educational light of a rather dark room. With the
Mexican period of 1821-1836, educational developments rallied
some but not appreciably. The "Free Public School of the City
of S. Fernando de Bexar" opened in January, 1828, and other
schools followed, mostly in the Anglo-American settlements of
Texas. Stephen F. Austin, Thomas J. Pilgrim, Josiah H. Bell, and
many other prominent Masons have their story told as they had
an impact on education.
"Education in the Republic of Texas" is the title of Part II.
The presentation proceeds chronologically through the four pres-
idential administrations, then concludes with a chapter on "Mis-
cellaneous Educational Institutions" and one of "Summary and
Interpretation." Carter selects Ira Ingram as a person representa-
tive of "the ideals of Freemasonry." In this section one finds in
some detail how the public school system had its infant begin-
nings. Private institutions such as Rutersville College, Baylor
University, Galveston College, and the University of San Augus-
tine are included. Miscellaneous institutions mentioned include
Manhattan Academy and Masonic Collegiate Institute. In exam-
ining the fruits of his study, Carter concluded that "Masons were
using every means in their power, in government, in private as-
sociation, in religious bodies and with individuals to bring about
the creation of educational institutions."
Eleven photographs and eight tables represent meaningful ad-
ditions to the text. Particularly good is Table 5, "Male Teachers
in Private Schools in Texas, 1836-1846." The bibliography is com-
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 68, July 1964 - April, 1965, periodical, 1965; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101198/m1/153/: accessed August 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.