The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 70, July 1966 - April, 1967 Page: 94
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
tion and stop the steady flow of men across the Rio Grande into
Mexico, and to head off a rumored Unionist uprising.2
As a result of heightening tensions in his Rio Grande sub-
district, Brigadier General Hamilton P. Bee, who replaced Mc-
Culloch, declared martial law on April 28. The order required
all white males over sixteen to register with the provost marshal
and take an oath of allegiance; all aliens who had entered the
district from the North since May 21, 1861, to explain their
presence; all persons leaving the district to have passports; all
liquor stores to be closed from 8:oo P.M. to 6:00 A.M.; and declared
depreciation of Confederate currency or refusal to receive it a
hostile act. Brigadier General Paul O. Hebert, commander of the
Department of Texas, extended the order to include the entire
state on May 30o.
That same day, Captain James Duff led his cavalry command
into Fredericksburg from San Antonio to proclaim and enforce
martial law in Gillespie and Kerr counties. When information
on Unionist activity was not offered freely, Duff ordered loyal
citizens to appear and give affidavits against other residents, who
then were arrested and sent to San Antonio for trial on a variety
of charges. Duff also sent a detachment into Medina County on
June 3, while his main body extended its efforts to Blanco and
Kendall counties, before returning to San Antonio on June 2 1.
A strong secessionist with little understanding or sympathy for
Unionist views, Duff earned the lasting condemnation of many
Hill Country residents because of his men's rough treatment of
persons suspected of disaffection, including destruction of some
homes and crops.4
'Claude Elliott, "Union Sentiment in Texas, 1861-1865," Southwestern Historical
Quarterly, L, 449-477; R. H. Williams, With the Border Ruffians: Memoirs of the
Far West, 1852-1868 (London, 1908), 195-2oo; San Antonio Herald, March 22,
1862; H. E. McCulloch, to Samuel Boyer Davis, March 3, 25, 31, 1862, War of the
Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (70 vols. in
128; Washington, 188o-19go), Series I, Vol. IX, 701-7o6. Cited hereafter as Official
"General Orders No. 3, Sub-Military District of the Rio Grande, April 24, 1862,
ibid., 70o8-709; General Orders No. 45, Department of Texas, May 30o, 1862, ibid.,
715-716; San Antonio Herald, May 3, 1862.
'James Duff to E. F. Gray, June 23, 1862, Official Records, Series II, Vol. IV,
785-787; William Banta and J. W. Caldwell, Jr., Twenty-Seven Years on the Texas
Frontier (Council Hill, Oklahoma, 1933), 187; Williams, With the Border Ruffians,
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 70, July 1966 - April, 1967, periodical, 1967; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101199/m1/112/: accessed January 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.