The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 81, July 1977 - April, 1978 Page: 416
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
in churches, were seasoned with prayer, preaching, and hymn-singing.
In fact, the entire organization took on a revivalist spirit.46
Their political differences have been noted above, although by 1940
many of the leaders had become Franklin D. Roosevelt Democrats.
While some later adhered to the state's more conservative Democratic
organization, others took up the banner of Henry Wallace in 1948.47
Virtually all joined in civic activities besides the NAACP, such as voter
registration drives, YMCA, and the Negro Chamber of Commerce.
Prominence in the movement automatically brought threats, especially
malicious telephone calls, on a regular basis. Yet the recipients were not
noticeably embittered, anti-white, or humorless.
Although the significant leaders of the movement number only about
forty, most were active for many years. Those who emerged with the
State Conference in the late 1930s and early 1940s continued to direct
its affairs until the mid 1950s. Maceo Smith, Thurgood Marshall, Wil-
liam J. Durham, Lulu White, Carter Wesley, and other veterans of the
white primary litigation were the same activists who subsequently, in
1945, planned a successful lawsuit against the segregated University of
Texas.48 Their long-term commitment to the NAACP's civil rights
agenda and their organizational achievements through the Texas State
Conference enabled them to overturn much of the state's legal frame-
work of discrimination and segregation.
46Daisy Lampkin to Walter White, April 1o, 1943, NAACP Papers, Unprocessed Files.
For a discussion of ministers' role in the NAACP, see Minutes of the Eleventh Annual
Meeting of the Texas NAACP, Denison, Texas, September 5-7, 1947, Juanita Craft Papers.
47Minutes of the Committee to Get Wallace on the Ballot in Texas, Files of National
Alliance of Postal Employees, Houston; Negro Labor News (Houston), March 13, 1948.
48Sweatt v. Painter et al., 339 U.S. 629 (1950); Smith to Marshall, April 9, 1945, NAACP
Papers, Unprocessed Files.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 81, July 1977 - April, 1978, periodical, 1977/1978; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101205/m1/472/: accessed May 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.