The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 82, July 1978 - April, 1979 Page: 464
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
received consideration. At the same time Martinez gives brief analyses of
Mexican government programs aimed at the integration of the border
area into the general development of the nation. Martinez argues that
the border relationship between Mexico and the United States creates
a "border paradox," for nowhere else can be found such a long border
separating a developing and developed nation (p. 6). He continues that
"while other countries rigidly control traffic across their borders, the
stark economic dissimilarities on the U.S.-Mexican border make for a
relatively open boundary...." (p. 6). Dependence thus develops. More-
over, Martinez gives attention to the "twin city" phenomenon that is
apparent on the U.S.-Mexican border. He examines the tensions be-
tween commuters from Mexico and Mexican Americans, competing
often for the same jobs. Juarez provides cheap labor for El Paso and
also a market for United States goods. Martinez concludes that:
Exclusion of the Mexican side in the design of economic development
schemes intended for the U.S. borderlands can yield only partial solutions.
Nationalistic considerations will need to give way to binational cooperation
that cuts across the separation inherent in the political boundary. Anything
less could well result in the serious deterioration of present conditions,
setting the stage for possible future international confrontations. (pp. 155-
Martinez' work is clearly needed. Yet the present volume presents a
series of problems and raises often more questions than it answers. This,
in part, could result from the brevity and generally sweeping nature of
the work. For example, in his treatment of Juarez and the Revolution,
Martinez clearly implies a general monolithic character to revolution-
ary control of Ciudad Juirez. He fails, for instance, to distinguish clear-
ly between carrancista and villista control of the area. In addition, if
we extend the twin city concept, only passing mention is made of the
role of El Paso in the political machinations of the different factions
that used that city as an operation base and as a springboard back into
While Martinez acknowledges that El Paso is also dependent upon
Juirez for part of its economic health, the author tends to lay heavier
blame for the economic imbalance on the United States than on the
Mexican government. In all probability, blame per se cannot be as-
cribed. A major problem with dependency theory, at least as Martinez
uses it, comes from the implied belief that the developed nation became
developed through some sinister exploitation of the developing partner.
It should be noted that relations between El Paso and Juirez have
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 82, July 1978 - April, 1979, periodical, 1978/1979; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101206/m1/526/: accessed July 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.