The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 98, July 1994 - April, 1995 Page: 625
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foremost expert on the geographical aspects of American political history. The
author of three historical atlases on the United States Congress, Martis has now
applied his formidable analytical skills to the brief and stormy existence of
America's other national legislature, the Congress of the Confederacy. Pub-
lished in an impressive coffee-table-size format, the resulting atlas boasts forty-
five full-page maps (all but two in color), forty-eight statistical tables, and more
than 150 pages of text packed with information and fully documented with
scholarly notes. The ubiquitous accolade "definitive" hardly does this work jus-
The casual reader and Civil War buff, however, will find none of the excite-
ment one normally receives from an authoritative publication on the Civil War.
The maps, for all their stylish color, show nothing of grand strategy, military
campaigns, or battles. Not a single vintage photograph, wartime print, or artist's
sketch graces its pages. No quotations from politicians' fiery speeches and letters
spice its contents. These would fail to serve the author's purpose. Rather, one
sees page after page of detailed data and sophisticated analysis of the various
congressional districts, laws on apportionment and representation, political is-
sues and campaigns, candidates and their positions, electoral procedures and
elections, and roll-call voting patterns practiced by members of the Confederate
Each of the Confederacy's three congresses-the Provisional Congress
(1861-1862), the First Permanent Congress (1862-1864), and the Second Per-
manent Congress (1864-1865)-receives minute attention, all according to the
decisions and actions of the wartime South's more than one hundred congres-
sional districts. The relatively sparsely settled states west of the Mississippi River,
including Texas, qualified for only a few districts (Texas had six, Louisiana six,
and Arkansas five). Boundaries of the congressional districts within each state
serve to delineate the various kinds of information depicted on the maps. These
include the size of slave populations, varying land values, and those areas in-
creasingly falling under Union army control (depicted on twelve maps for specif-
ic dates throughout the war).
Several other maps flesh out important political factors, including party affilia-
tion before the war, methods of election in each district, and rates of incumben-
cy among candidates for each election. Crucial issues confronting Confederate
congressmen are also analyzed, largely on the basis of voting patterns in Con-
gress on conscription, impressment, and suspension of habeas corpus. Along
with the text itself, forty-eight statistical tables provide the background informa-
tion and detailed numbers that bolster and complement the maps. Useful ap-
pendices (compilations of basic information referred to throughout the text)
include "Electoral Procedures"; "Confederate Congressional District State Laws";
"Congressional Elections, Candidates, and Vote Totals"; and "Union Occupation
and Status of Congressional Districts."
In its most striking contribution, the atlas examines the representation of
Confederate citizens in territory occupied and controlled by Union troops. One
of the few examples in history of a government sanctioning legitimate elections
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 98, July 1994 - April, 1995, periodical, 1995; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101216/m1/695/: accessed May 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.