The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 99, July 1995 - April, 1996 Page: 432

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Southwestern Historical Quarterly

of the Dallas Independent School District (DISD) and the establishment of a
dual educational system. Linden then devotes one chapter to each decade of liti-
gation, ending each chapter with a summary.
The litigation against segregation in the DISD began shortly after the 1954
Brown decision. Linden does a good job of presenting the differences in opinion
between the United States District Court of Dallas and the Circuit Court.
Decisions of the district court covered the spectrum from noncompliance to
token desegregation to gradualism. Linden shows that the southern background
of the district judges aided in bringing about the disagreements.
Linden discusses the various participants in the litigation, the changing make-
up of the Dallas school board, and how the board influenced the cases. The
business community played an important role in bringing about a more conserv-
ative policy of desegregation. The Citizen's Council, an organization of Dallas
businessmen, warned that violence could retard the city's growth. The business
community continued to play a role in desegregation plans over the years.
Linden also touches on the participation of the NAACP in bringing litigation,
although he does not utilize any of that organization's records as source materi-
al.
Linden introduces an important issue of the civil rights movement in Texas:
the participation of Mexican-Americans, whose activities from the 1970s to the
present are reported and shown to be a significant factor. Linden also reports
the changing views on school desegregation of different ethnic groups through
the years. He gives a detailed sketch of the busing controversy and its impact,
mainly in the form of "white flight," on Dallas. He also compares and relates the
desegregation events in Dallas to national events.
Linden relies mainly on newspaper accounts and court transcripts to write his
study. Desegregating Schools in Dallas is an important addition to the study of the
civil rights movement in Texas.
West Texas A&M University MARTIN KUHLMAN
Torpedoes in the Gulf. By Melanie Wiggins. (College Station: Texas A&M
University Press, 1995. Pp. 280. Preface, appendix, notes, bibliography,
index. ISBN 0-89096-627-3. $29.50.)
German submarines operating in the Gulf of Mexico during the first half of
World War II sank fifty-six merchant ships (mostly tankers) and damaged four-
teen others before the threat was eliminated. While the number of U-boats in
the Gulf at any one time rarely exceeded six or seven, their activities represent-
ed, writes Melanie Wiggins, "a major Axis victory that was never known" (p.
230).
Actually, something of the destruction wrought by these U-boats has long
been known to those who care or remember much about the war. It has not,
however, received much written attention.
Wiggins, a freelance writer who lives in Galveston, visited Germany twice for
archival research and interviews. Along the Gulf Coast, primarily in Galveston,

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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 99, July 1995 - April, 1996, periodical, 1996; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101217/m1/494/ocr/: accessed August 26, 2016), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.