The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 99, July 1995 - April, 1996 Page: 578

Southwestern Historical Quarterly

William Wittliff, Willie Nelson, Kinky Friedman, Linda Ellerbee, and Prince Al-
bert of Monaco. Actually, Daddy-O probably has twenty-five thousand Texas and
foreign friends, give or take five thousand, for he is a charming person whose co-
writers, the fabulous Zimmerman twins, understand completely.
Wade's story, despite its readability, is a meaningful one. As the key member
of the Dallas Oak Cliff Four, Wade writes modestly, "we bucked the 7o's New
York aesthetics that were being shoved down everybody's throats in Texas." He
and his cohorts helped to create a major movement in American art history--
Texas funk-a public art!
The Caddo Indians: Tribes at the Convergence of Empires, 1542-1854. By F. Todd
Smith. (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1995. Pp. 229. Intro-
duction, notes, bibliography, index. ISBN 0-89096-642-7. $24.50.)
The Caddo people who now live in the Anadarko area of western Oklahoma
constitute only a few thousand people, and they rarely garner much national at-
tention, yet they compose a viable community with a strong cultural identity.
Perhaps they numbered as many as two hundred thousand by the end of the
fifteenth century, and their domain stretched across an immense area where
modern Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas converge. Their homeland became a
primary region for Spanish and French imperial struggle as both European pow-
ers depended heavily upon Caddo trade and military alliance. French contact
was initiated by La Salle and Henri de Tonti during the 168os, and relations
were strengthened by Saint-Denis during the early eighteenth century. The
French brought important trade goods to the Caddo and assured the latter's po-
sition as important middlemen in a commerce that extended throughout the
southern plains. Unlike the Spaniards who built missions and presidios in East
Texas and demanded Christianization and cultural change among the Indians,
the French traders demanded little. Yet the French exit from North America in
1763 left the Caddo with fewer trade options, a cycle of increased dependency,
and a new vulnerability to Spanish, British, Chickasaw, and Osage power.
F. Todd Smith, assistant professor of history at Xavier University, provides a
solid overview of Caddoan military and economic decline over a three-hundred-
year period. Although the book is more a discussion of Indian-white relations
than a balanced ethnohistory, Smith pays attention to cultural changes, the
demise of traditional religious leaders such as the xinesi, and growing factional-
ism. For the early years, he properly separates the three Caddo confederacies-
Kadohadacho, Natchitoches, and Hasinai-and then identifies the changes
which forced them together as a single people by the beginning of the nine-
teenth century. American settlement of the region had the most profound effect
of all, and by the federal treaty of 1835 the remnants of the former two confed-
eracies were forced to join their Hasinai kinsmen in East Texas. Buffeted further
by the anti-Indian feelings which boiled over during the Republic of Texas and



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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 99, July 1995 - April, 1996, periodical, 1996; Austin, Texas. ( accessed October 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History,; crediting Texas State Historical Association.