The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 104, July 2000 - April, 2001 Page: 617
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examine and evaluate the unique contact experience of these tribes between ca.
1500 and 1840.
The case studies focus on the Timuca of northern Florida, the Guale of the
lower Atlantic Coast, the Apalachee of Northwest Florida, the Chickasaw, the
Caddo of the Trans-Mississippi South, the Natchez, the Quapaw of Arkansas, the
Cherokee, the upper and lower Creeks, and the Florida Seminole. They are pre-
sented by an eminent group of scholars, and it is fair to say that this compendi-
um of studies comprises one of the most comprehensive examinations of Native
American-European relations in North America to appear in years. The geo-
graphic and cultural diversity of the tribes included in the volume is matched by
the diversity of the contact process across the Greater Southeast. Indian-
European contact was shaped by the catastrophic effects of introduced epidemic
diseases, new economic and trade opportunities (particularly the deer hide
trade), escalating conflicts between the tribes and "Spanish, French, and British
explorers, soldiers, colonists, missionary priests, and entrepreneurs" (p. 1), and
changes in Native American ideologies and status roles.
Of particular interest to the readers of this journal will be the chapter on the
Caddo Indians of the Trans-Mississippi South, which is ably written by Ann M.
Early of the Arkansas Archeological Survey. This Native American tribe lived
from the sixteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century in the woodlands and
river valleys of northeastern Texas, northwestern Louisiana, southwestern
Arkansas, and eastern Oklahoma. They were, and are still, a proud community
of agricultural peoples with a cultural heritage that extends back at least several
millennia, but were well emerged by A.D. 900. They live now around Binger,
Oklahoma, a small town in western Oklahoma, having been forcibly removed
from Texas in 1859.
Early notes that much of what is known about the Caddo people in historic
times "comes from documents written by Europeans and from remembered tra-
ditions revealed by modern Caddo descendants" (p. 136). The 1691 map pre-
pared by Domingo Teran de los Rios of the upper Nasoni Caddo community liv-
ing on the Red River immediately west of the modern city of Texarkana, pro-
vides some of the best information on the social and geographic arrangement of
one such community. In that community, individual farming compounds were
spaced between the complex of the community leader, the caddi, and the com-
plex of the xznesz, the paramount religious authority; deliberately constructed
earthen mounds marked both complexes. These spatial and ideological relation-
ships have close parallels in the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century archaeologi-
cal record of the Caddo along this reach of the Red River, including the Hatchel
and Eli Moores sites in Bowie County, Texas. Although Early suggests that such a
complex pattern of community organization existed among the Hasinai Caddo
in East Texas after European contact, archaeological investigations indicate that
this is not the case, as earthen mounds were not built by the East Texas Caddo
after about A.D. 1400.
Indians of the Greater Southwest will be of considerable interest to anthropolo-
gists, historians, archaeologists, and others who are interested in learning
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 104, July 2000 - April, 2001, periodical, 2001; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101221/m1/695/: accessed April 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.