The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 208
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
that Ray6n still voiced his loyalty to Ferdinand VII, and held back from
promoting unconditional independence."
Shaler imagined that Gutierrez should be his political pupil, undertak-
ing no decisive military moves without consultation. The special agent re-
peatedly advised Gutierrez to avoid contacts with French agents, who
might steer his invasion in Napoleon's interest. Gutierrez had no love of
France, but he was quite open to assistance from Frenchmen who might
aid his country's independence. By July 16, 1812, he had named one Pe-
dro [Pierre] Girard as his agent in New Orleans. Girard, now a commis-
sioner of the Mexican Republic (la Repzblica Mexicana), served as Gutidr-
rez's surrogate in negotiating with Gen. John Adair of Kentucky about
leading Anglo-American auxiliary troops into Texas. Girard requested
that Adair not only obey Gutierrez as representative of the Republic, but
that he also respect a Mexican officer ("un Criollo de la tierra") when one
was chosen as commander-in-chief. When Adair pulled out of these dis-
cussions, Gutierrez found an alternative candidate in Augustus W. Magee,
a former U.S. Army officer who recruited his own volunteers during the
summer of 1812.ss
Gutidrrez's relationship with Girard indicates how far he had traveled,
both literally and figuratively, from his vulnerable position as a refugee
envoy in September 1811. Showing increasing self-confidence, he now
deputized others to act in the name of the Republic-a government that
had not yet been officially proclaimed in Mexico itself. As Gutierrez pre-
pared to move into Texas, he acted on his own rather than await explicit
instructions from Ray6n. He proceeded as a type of frontier caudillo-a
revolutionary leader defining his country's objectives in a contested bor-
derland region far from the centers of the Mexican insurgency."
From Gutidrrez's perspective, his alliance with Magee was a matter of
political and military necessity. Though Gutierrez had a small following
among Tejanos, Mexicans, and French Louisianans, he realized that
Magee possessed the loyalty of Anglo-American filibusters, the bulk of the
gathering "Republican Army of the North." He therefore consented to a
position as nominal commander, without the explicit guarantees that he
' William Shaler to James Monroe, July 12, 1812, Special Agents MSS
" Ibid., May 7, 22,June 12, 1812; Pedro Girard to Bernardo Gutxirrez,July 27, 1812, transcript
from the Nacogdoches Archives, Gutlerrez de Lara Papers (CAH). Jose Bernardo Gutidrrez to
Brig. Gen. James Wilkinson, July 16, 1812, Gutidrrez de Lara Papers, Ibid Based upon Shaler's
correspondence,Julia K. Garrett identifies Girard as "Napoleon's agent in New Orleans " See Gar-
rett, Green Flag Over Texas, 198-199. Harris Gaylord Warren attributes no definite office to Girard.
See Warren, The Sword Was Thear Passport, 59, 64n., 80o. Girard's role is discussed in Guedea, "Au-
tonomia e independencia," 152-153
" Gutidrrez did not proceed as the typical caudillo, with an economic and social basis of sup-
port in his native locale. He more closely resembled those caudillos who were military command-
ers "m remote provinces or distant fronts," where they operated independently of "higher au-
thority." See Lynch, Caudllos an Spanash America, 4, 82-83 (quotation).
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/260/: accessed June 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.