The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 220
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
allies. His actual policy was less straightforward, though quite pragmatic.
He would bestow honors and wealth upon Anglo-Americans, while him-
self deciding major issues of governance and military affairs.65
In addition to charging Guti6rrez with corruption and misrule, Shaler
blamed him for failing to march into Northern Mexico. This criticism
runs directly counter to Gutidrrez's account that he had attempted to ral-
ly his troops for an offensive campaign, only to be blocked by opposition
from the junta and from Anglo-American and creole officers. Whatever
the reasons for the Republican Army's cautious stance, there is no doubt
that Gutierrez continued to keep his eyes fixed on Mexico. In a Spanish-
language proclamation of May 2o, 1813, he admonished his comrades in
arms that "our only goal is, and always has been, to liberate our country
... and to establish a National Government that will form the happiness
of present and future generations." Though Texas was now "an Indepen-
dent state" (un estado Independiente), there was still a need to free the rest
of the Interior Provinces of Mexico.66
Gutierrez drew inspiration from what he identified as the ongoing
struggle for republican government (gobierno republicano) in various
provinces of South America. Above all, he presented glowing, though er-
roneous, reports about the progress of rebel armies in Mexico. According
to his proclamation, insurgent leaders had already captured Mexico City
and Zacatecas. Joaquin Arredondo, the royalist commander, had mean-
while allegedly been defeated in the southern region of Nuevo Santander.
Gutierrez predicted that his Republican Army would surely destroy the
small force (la pocafuerza) remaining under the "moribund" Spanish gov-
ernment. "In all times," he exclaimed, "a free man has defeated ten
There was an enormous discrepancy between Guti6rrez's message and
the actual state of military and political affairs in Mexico. Though insur-
gents under Jos6 Maria Morelos held sway in portions of southern Mexi-
co, they by no means posed a direct threat to Mexico City in early 1813.
Royalists had already repulsed Jos6 Maria Cos's army near Guanajuato on
"'Jose Bernardo Gutierrez to William Shaler, Apr. 18, 1813; see also Gutilrrez's Proclamation
"to freemen of all nations," Apr. 18, 1813. This proclamation guaranteed immigrants "the pro-
tection and enjoyment" of a "republican government." Shaler forwarded the above documents, m
English translation, to the State Department. Special Agents MSS; Jose Bernardo Gutierrez to
[Maj. Reuben Ross?], Feb. 24, 1813, m Shaler to Monroe, Mar. 13, 1813, Special Agents MSS.
Shaler himself reminded Gutierrez of the importance of giving "the most hberal management to
foreign commerce." See Shaler to Monroe, Apr. 2, 1813, Ibid.
"' Wilham Shaler to James Monroe,June 12, 1813, Special Agents MSS; "El G[ene]ral en Gefe
del Exercito del Norte a n[uestros] Compafieros de Armas," May 2o, 1813 (quotations), in Shaler
to Monroe,June 2o, 1813, ibid.; Gutierrez to the Mexican Congress, LamarPapers, I, 15-16.
"7 "El G[ene]ral en Gefe del Exercito del Norte a n[uestros] Companferos de Armas," May 2o,
1813, in Shaler to Monroe,June 2o, 1813, Special Agents MSS. Quotation: "en todos tempos ...
un hombre libre ha vencido dies esclavos!"
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/272/: accessed June 22, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.