The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 223
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Jose Bernardo Gutidrrez de Lara
American army officers exacerbated existing tensions between these men
and the governor. Bullard warned the junta that Col. Henry Perry of Con-
necticut, current leader of the U.S. volunteers, vowed to leave the country
with his men unless Toledo took control from "Bernardo" (Gutierrez)."
The junta steered carefully between the governor and his opponents.
As the council deliberated on June 27, it requested a meeting the next
day with "the Spanish American officers ... to ascertain the Public voice."
The "Junta Guvernativa" then issued its letter discouraging Toledo from
attempting to oust Gutierrez. This document was signed by Francisco
Arocha, president, joined by vocales Vicente Travieso, Jose Antonio
Saucedo, and Nathan M. Hale, doubtless a U.S. volunteer. It is striking
that just three vocales signed the letter, since the Texas declaration of in-
dependence allowed for six of these officeholders. One may speculate
that Gutierrez was either having difficulty attracting men to serve with
him, or that some councilors were reluctant to take a public stance on a
matter of deep factional antagonism."7
Backed by Shaler, Toledo defied Gutierrez and marched onward to
B6xar, arriving in the city on August i with a coterie of Anglo-American
supporters and other foreigners, including Juan Mariano Picornell, an
aged revolutionary from Caracas. After much contention, the junta called
a general assembly on the 4th to decide the issue of commander-in-chief,
"in which all officers and the greater part of the people were present."
This notice is similar to Henry Bullard's retrospective account stating that
the electors included "officers of the army, the members of the Junta, and
the notables of the capital." The upshot was the election of Toledo, with
the junta informing Guti6rrez of the necessity of yielding power in a
proper manner. Jos6 Bernardo departed for Natchitoches just two days
later, having lost sufficient popular and military support to sustain his re-
publican command. Mexican troops under Col. Miguel Menchaca were
generally upset at their countryman's dismissal, but they did not rebel in
Though Gutidrrez's ouster was sanctioned by the junta, it was driven
by discontented Anglo-American officers, who themselves acted with
" Junta Guvernativa [Gobernatlva] to Toledo, June 28, 1813, Special Agents MSS, Henry
Adams Bullard to Shaler,June 27, 1813, ibid.
7"Joseph B. Wilkinson to Shaler,June 27, 1813 (quotation), ibid.;Junta Guvernativa to Toledo,
June 28, 1813, ibid. Mariano Rodriguez signed as secretary of the junta.
"' [H. A. Bullard], "Mexico and Texas," North Amencan Relvew, 43 (1836), 240 (2nd quotation);
Castafieda, Our Catholzc Hentage in Texas, VI, 111, Gutirrez to the Mexican Congress, Lamar Pa-
pers, I, 19 (1st quotation) Gutierrez beheved that Toledo aimed to assassinate him on his arrival
in Natchitoches. See LamarPapers, I, 20-21. See also "Information from Capt. Games," Lamer Pa-
pers, I, 282; H. M. Brackenridge, "Texas," Zanesvzlle [Ohzo] Gazette, Dec 9, 1835; Walker (ed.),
"McLane's Narrative," 473. Gaines and Brackenridge cited Col. Miguel Menchaca as a strong op-
ponent of Toledo's takeover.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/275/: accessed December 15, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.