The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 224
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
William Shaler's blessing. The coup was not a sudden act, but was the cul-
mination of tensions building for months. The volunteers did not direct-
ly attack Gutierrez because of his Mexican national allegiance, but in-
stead targeted his alleged personal failings. Their recollections of
Gutierrez-though biased-are too uniform in condemnation to be dis-
missed as the simple recriminations of defeat. In addition to despising
Guti6rrez for the Salado Creek killings, the volunteers had little, if any re-
spect for him as a military leader. Some Anglo-Americans accused him of
positioning himself at the rear of the Republican Army during the battle
of Alazin Creek. These critics were capable of admiring Mexican bravery,
but not as shown by Gutierrez.7"
To be sure, Gutidrrez's failings were not solely responsible for difficul-
ties between Mexican and Anglo-American soldiers. Some filibusters were
so cocksure about their own military prowess that they were beguiled in-
to false assumptions of cultural superiority. For example, one Anglo-
American commented on how the "principal republicans" of B6xar
flocked to the rebel army during Salcedo's retreat toward the capital in
late February 1813. He then remarked proudly that the citizens of B6xar,
and "generally throughout the province ... are becoming republicans
thro' the incontrovertible argument of our American rifles." Volunteers
anticipated an easy conquest, and were unprepared for the difficulties of
a sustained campaign against Northern New Spain. Anglo-American over-
confidence was a significant cause of the Republican Army's defeat at the
Medina River on August 18, 1813-a blow that ended the insurgency in
Guti6rrez was not one to accept responsibility for his failures as com-
mander-in-chief of Texas. In his report to the Mexican Congress of 1815,
he cast blame on the junta and creole officers for being too subservient
to Anglo-American designs. The filibusters were themselves "rascals"
prone to "crooked methods and innumerable intrigues." Curiously,
Gutierrez made no direct mention of William Shaler, perhaps because he
did not wish to expose his inability to keep the U.S. agent on his side. He
leveled by far his harshest criticism against Toledo, who had utterly be-
7" Walker (ed.), "McLane's Narrative," 470; H. A. Bullard to Shaler, June 27, 1813, Special
Agents MSS.John Villars offered a less negative assessment of Gutierrez than other fihbusters See
Lamar Papers, VI, 152. For positive assessments of Miguel Menchaca, a Mexican officer, see Walk-
er (ed.), "McLane's Narrative," 466-467; LamarPapers, IV, pt. 1, 278, VI, 150o.
77 Anon. to John Sibley, Mar. 5, 12, 1813, enclosed in Shaler to Monroe, Apr. 2, 1813, Special
Agents MSS. One account relates how Col. Henry Perry, expecting "an easy victory," advanced to-
ward Arredondo's royalists. See Joseph B. Wilkinson to William Shaler, enclosed m Shaler to Mon-
roe, Sept. 5, 1813, Special Agents MSS. The Republican force perhaps numbered between 1,ooo
and 1,500 men-including about 300 to 400 Anglo-Americans Mexicans and Tejanos comprised
the greater part of the remainder, supplemented by Lipan Apaches and Tonkawas See Wilkinson
to Shaler, ibid; [Bullard], "Mexico and Texas," 240; Walker (ed.), "McLane's Narrative," 474,
Thomas F. Schilz, Lpan Apaches mn Texas (El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1987), 36-37
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/276/: accessed January 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.