The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 2
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2 Southwestern Historical Quarterly July
Moyers, as a member of Johnson's staff, played an intimate role in the
passage of the bill itself. Claudia Alta Taylor Johnson, better known as
Lady Bird, and Mrs. Wright, the Johnson family cook, had their own
unique roles in its passage. The impact of the legislation on Marshall,
and by implication the rest of the South, was summed up in one of the
interviews in "Marshall Texas/Marshall Texas." Asked about the effect of
the 1964 Civil Rights Act, Moyers' high school English teacher Inez
Hughes, quoting another Marshall resident, said "Well, today we lost the
Civil War. Up to that time we had always won it."'
Founded in 1841, Marshall was one of the largest cities in Texas by
the time of the Civil War. No county in the state had more slaves than
Harrison, and federal troops were stationed in the city and county from
1865 to 1867 because of the large number of freedmen, so many that
they formed the majority of the population. That large black popula-
tion also led to the creation of educational institutions for the former
slaves. In addition to Wiley College, a Methodist Episcopal Church insti-
tution that was founded in 1873, the Baptist Home Missionary Society
located Bishop College in Marshall in 1881. As was the case in all East
Texas towns, Marshall remained rigidly segregated, including such
municipal facilities as the parks and public swimming pools, the town's
privately operated library, and every white-owned restaurant and movie
house. However, a Carnegie Library built on the Wiley College campus
in 1910 o was used by all races.
The city escaped the race riots of the early part of the century, even
when one of the bloodiest was staged in 1919 in Longview, only twenty-
three miles to the west. Dr. Matthew Dogan, president of Wiley from
1896 to 1942; H. B. Pemberton, principal of Central High School for
Negroes from 1894 to 1944; and Dr. J. J. Rhoads, president of Bishop
from 1929 to 1951, enjoyed the respect of the white community. Both
colleges seemed to have received some financial support from local
whites. Still, a White Citizens Party was formed in 1876 that virtually
deprived African Americans in the city and county of their right to vote.
A "brief history" of that effort was written by R. P. Littlejohn, the grand-
son of one of those organizers, in 1936. Describing the political climate
after the Citizens Party took over, Littlejohn wrote, "it was easy enough
When asked by Moyers about the impact of the 1964 act, his high school English teacher,
Inez Hughes, quoted a local banker. Hughes retired in 1964 rather than teach in an integrated
school. "Marshall Texas/Marshall Texas," prod. David Grubm (episode of "Walk Through the
2oth Century," ex. prods. Mort Kaplin and Charles Grmnker), Corporation for Education and
Learning (PBS, Jan , 1984). The ninety-minute program was filmed entirely m Marshall in
October 1982 but not aired until January 1984.
SRandolph B. Campbell, A Southern Community in Crnsis: Harnson County, Texas, z85o-188o
(Austin: Texas State Historical Association, 1983), 4.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/30/: accessed April 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.