The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 423
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The Wiley-Bishop Student Movement
resistance, including no laughing, be courteous, remember to love, do
not retaliate, and do not block entrances and aisles. One more added
specifically for Bishop and Wiley students entreated participants to dress
neatly and act intelligently. Another pamphlet distributed by Lawson and
Fellowship of Reconciliation, entitled "How to Practice Non-Violence,"
directed demonstrators to define their objective, give their opponent a
way out once he realized his error, and to be humble.'2
Although the students received assistance in the initial orchestration
of the sit-ins, they controlled and directed the campaign once the first
protests commenced. The frequency with which adult organizers
appeared on the two campuses declined dramatically after March 26.
Nonetheless, student leaders still occasionally sought outside advice.
Harry Blake telephoned Marshall several times between March 26 and
April 2 to check on the movement's progress."
At 10 A.M. on Saturday, March 26, ten male students from Wiley and
Bishop colleges made their way into Woolworth's lunch counter in
downtown Marshall. Manager W. W. Hall quickly turned out the lights
and declared the lunch counter closed after the students sat down, but
before they requested service. The demonstrators filed out as white
patrons mumbled threats and local police officers and deputy sheriffs
monitored the situation. As the second group of students arrived by
10:30 A.M., local whites and law enforcement officials occupied all of the
seats, and Hall soon closed the store for the remainder of the day.'4
Participants in the morning's events reassembled with at least one
hundred other students at the bell tower on the Wiley campus after
lunch. The group formed into a hand-linked circle and sang patriotic
songs such as the National Anthem, prayed, and drew up plans for after-
noon demonstrations. A set of ten different students arrived at the
Union bus terminal caf6 shortly after 2 P.M. As all but two of the white
patrons exited, manager Earl Senn closed the lunch counter. Senn's
frustration and racism showed forth clearly when later asked during a
trial to identify the perpetrators. Senn railed, "I don't know, they all
look alike to me." Local police again escorted the protesters from the
building without incident, although they threatened the students with
jail and cast a few racial epithets.'1
" Dallas Mornng News, Apr 2, 1960, Texas 57th Legislature Investigative Committee Report,
"'Harry Blake to Ella J. Baker, director of the SCLC, May 18, 196o, expense report, reel 1,
1" Marshall News Messenger, Mar. 27, 1960; Dallas Mornng News, Mar. 27, 196o; Texas Observer,
Apr. i, 8, 1960.
' Marshall News Messenger, Mar. 27, 1960; Dallas Morning News, Mar. 27, 196o, Texas Observer,
Apr. 1, 8, 196o;Joe B. Fleming to Donald SealsJr., Aug. 20, 2oo0, telephone interview.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/491/: accessed September 19, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.