The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 427
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The Wiley-Bishop Student Movement
lThe March 31, 196o, edition of thie Shre-eporl 'imows printed a photo of Marshall
firefighters holding a hose after dousing about sixty demonstrators. Shreveport
Times Photo by Lloyd Stilley. Reprinted with permission of the Shreveport Times.
Simultaneously, a mass of between three and six hundred students, a
rather large portion of Bishop and Wiley's combined enrollment of nine
hundred, gathered outside on the courthouse lawn and sang in unison
with the detainees. District Attorney Allen emerged on the courthouse
steps and urged the group to disperse, to no avail. When he requested a
meeting with the leaders, the entire assemblage herded into the court-
house and continued singing from the balconies while agitated officials
uselessly tried to speak with them. Outside, a smaller crowd of students
had marched from the two campuses and congregated near the entrance
to the edifice. Within the hour, a movement spokesman informed the
throng that the arrested students would be released without bond and
entreated demonstrators to leave the scene. Nonetheless, the group reset-
tled on the west side of the square to await the release of the detainees.2"
By 6 P.M., throngs of curious locals, both white and black, amassed
downtown after the work day ended. The intermingling of the races, espe-
cially in the thoroughly southern town of Marshall, did not bode well.
Some annoyed whites criticized police for their tepid reaction and threat-
ened to impose their own brand of justice. Soon, under the authority of
County Judge George Pendergast, Sheriff Earl Franklin, and possibly the
city commission, the fire department unveiled high-pressure water hoses
and attempted to force the mulling students from the square.'2
Four fire trucks and three hoses simultaneously doused the demon-
strators, who occasionally taunted the firefighters by moving just beyond
2" Texas Observer, Apr. 8, 19g6o; Marshall News Messenger, Mar. 31, 1960; Dallas Morning News,
Mar. 31, 196o.
''Rives to Seals, Aug. Aug. to, 2001oo, interview; Texas Observer, Apr. 1, 1960.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/495/: accessed April 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.