The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 430
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
went unheeded. Also, amid rumors of a student march on Thursday,
March 31, the local school board called a special meeting to determine
whether to continue extracurricular activities for the week. The board
ultimately decided to proceed with scheduled events unless otherwise
directed by law enforcement officials."
Student leaders from both colleges agreed to withhold demonstrations
until bond had been arranged in the event of further arrests. But in an
informal group chat with the press and at an afternoon rally of 250 stu-
dents at Wiley's bell tower, the movement had gained momentum. As the
white power structure and law officials downtown became defensive and
anxious, the Wiley-Bishop Student Movement attracted new followers
and gained confidence. Wiley leaderJoel Rucker exclaimed, "[t]he flame
is up, the flame is up, the whole town is on fire. We were the spark and
now the flame has started. We will go all the way, if it requires death, all
the way.""35 The apprehensive novice protesters of Saturday, March 26,
were no more.
Throngs of locals converged on the downtown area Friday, April i, to
witness a rumored parade of demonstrators, which never took place.
Many white agitators had filtered into town by this time. The appearance
of several vicious German shepherd and Doberman attack dogs on the
square provided a particularly incendiary element, which created an
uneasy atmosphere around the square. Handlers Don Cooper of
Longview and Russell Milroy of Nacogdoches even gave frightening
demonstrations of the dogs' prowess with the help of a local teenager act-
ing as an attacker. Gov. Price Daniel, in close contact with Marshall offi-
cials since Wednesday, immediately ordered Texas Ranger Capt. Bob
Crowder to remove the dogs after several Marshall merchants and First
Baptist Church Pastor Marion Harris complained. Daniel further
ordered Col. Homer Garrison, director of the Department of Public
Safety, to investigate Doxie Wilkerson's role in the sit-ins.36
By 12:30 P.M., couples of male and female protesters made their way
into Fry-Hodge drug store and requested service. By mid-afternoon, law
officials had arrested nine men and seven women and escorted them to
the city jail. Because the demonstrators entered the caf6 two at a time,
thus cirumventing the unlawful assembly statute, District Attorney Allen
charged them under City Ordinance 21.29, which declared it "unlawful
for any peddler, salesman, solicitor, or any other person who goes on
" Minutes of the Marshall Board of Education, Mar. 31, 1960, book 28 (Marshall
Independent School District, Marshall, Texas); Dallas Mornng News, Apr. 1, 196o.
" Texas Observer, Apr 8, 196o.
"Price Daniel to Hans Mynlieff, Apr. 3, 1960, telegram, box 424; and Press Release from the
office of Gov. Price Daniel, Mar. 31, 1960, both in Price Daniel Collection (Sam Houston
Regional Library and Research Center, Liberty, Texas).
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/498/: accessed April 30, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.