The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 436
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
reaches straight to Africa and Russia." The nebulous accusations in the
report consisted of a series of anti-communist platitudes quoted from
Federal Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover and an array
of coincidentally timed press releases by the Communist Party of
America supporting all sit-in demonstrations.48
More serious allegations, nevertheless, surfaced further into the
report. It accused movement legal counsel C. B. Bunkley and Walter
Durham of delivering $35,000 to Wiley President T. W. Cole the week
prior to demonstrations to be used as bail money, thus violating a 1957
injunction against the Texas NAACP that prohibited it from soliciting
or instigating lawsuits or other forms of protest. The legislative commit-
tee also recommended that the U.S. Supreme Court place the authority
back in Congress's hands to deal with communist subversion and that
the Texas attorney general look into the alleged NAACP violation.49
District Attorney Allen and Texas Attorney General Will Wilson imme-
diately vowed to investigate the accusations against the NAACP. But nei-
ther Wiley nor the NAACP's bank accounts nor interviews with the par-
ticipants involved revealed any truth to the allegation. The entire case
had been predicated upon the testimony of a Wiley student, George
McCoy, who worked in President Cole's office and who claimed to wit-
ness the transaction. The circumstances of this informant's confession,
detailed in note 4, revealed a tenuous case for the prosecution. Due to a
lack of evidence, an irritated Wilson dismissed the charges as unprove-
able and prompted by conservatives in the Texas Legislature. i0
Thus, by late 1961, more than a year and a half after their inception,
official investigations into the Marshall sit-ins ceased. Local law
enforcement officials, however, did not drop the charges against the
remainder of the students (those not involved in the test cases) until
A host of factors contributed to the failure of the Wiley-Bishop
Student Movement. An extremely conservative local government never
wavered in its decision to defy racial change. City Commissioner
Cleveland Heard became the epitome of Marshall's intransigence when
he stood publicly with the firemen and disgustedly directed water hoses
at the crowd of protesters. Neither Mayor Frank Green nor any other
political or civic leader attempted to do any more than curb the violence
and adverse publicity. Similarly, white business owners refused to elevate
commercial success above their racist ideology. In fact, the group tried a
4"Texas 57th Legislature General Investigating Committee Report, 25-33.
"9Ibid., 24-25, 54.
"Investigator Tim Timmms to Texas Attorney General Will Wilson, letter (undated), State of
Texas v. NAACP Case Records.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/504/: accessed December 13, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.