The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003 Page: 489
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him to take credit for the successes of his subordinates and lay blame for his fail-
ings upon inferior officers.
Crook's campaigns and military adventures are also presented in fine form, al-
though Robinson echoes the inability of previous historians to adequately ex-
plain Crook's reluctance to pursue the Sioux following the setback at the battle
of the Rosebud in 1876. Looking beyond tactics and strategy, however, Robin-
son's assessment of Crook as an Indian manager is noteworthy. Crook's support
for humanitarian treatment of conquered Indians is well known, but Robinson
successfully illustrates the means by which Crook implemented his ideology be-
yond newspaper critiques. Crook used his military position and political connec-
tions in an effort to obtain justice and autonomy for Indian peoples, an
orientation that was out of step both with the civilian population of the West and
the federal government. In that regard, this reviewer concurs with Robinson's as-
sertion that "As an Indian fighter, Crook gained fame [but] as a humanitarian,
he achieved greatness" (p. xix).
Kent State Unzversity DANIEL P. BARR
German Pioneers on the American Frontzer: The Wagners in Texas and Illznozs. By An-
dreas Reichstein. (Denton: University of North Texas Press, 2oo1. Pp.
xii+303. Illustrations, acknowledgments, introduction, notes, bibliography,
index. ISBN 0-57441-134-9. $32.95, cloth.)
The aim of this book is to trace the family histories of two American Wagner
families. It is a personal history of the families using biographical material, but it
is much more than a family story. The author creates a sociohistorical context
for the family story as a particular case of the wider eighteenth- and nineteenth-
century migration from Germany to the United States; of the differences be-
tween assimilation and acculturation; of the influence of war (the Civil War and
two world wars) on the place of German immigrants in American society; and of
the legend of freedom and the American West. These are the general themes
drawn from this family history, some more convincingly than others. For exam-
ple, as the author anticipates, the argument that there is a personality more like-
ly to become an immigrant is perhaps the weakest. Nevertheless, Reichstein does
succeed in drawing out the wider implication of the main story.
The main story is a well-researched case study of brothers Julius and Wilhelm
Wagner, who immigrated to the United States from Baden, Germany, Julius in
1847 and Wilhelm in 1851. Both brothers fled Germany because of their politi-
cal beliefs. Julius came with an early communist group and became part of the
utopian settlement movement from Germany in the United States. He settled in
Texas; his brother Wilhelm settled in Illinois and founded a German-language
newspaper. Julius became part of the German settlement around New Braunfels
and Fredericksburg, joined and sang in the German singing groups that
abounded, and endured the hardships and privations of life on the Texas fron-
tier. When the Civil War broke out, Julius, being opposed to slavery, stayed loyal
to the Union, fled to Mexico during the war years, and returned to Texas during
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 106, July 2002 - April, 2003, periodical, 2003; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101223/m1/557/: accessed November 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.