The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 107, July 2003 - April, 2004 Page: 128
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Southwestern Historical Quarterly
Indians. He has authored or co-authored at least two other books in this vein.
His research is wholly scientific, not the "price guides" sometimes erroneously
filed under "archaeology" in bookstores.
The study of chipped-stone projectile points involves typological approaches
pioneered in the late 1940s by the late Alex Krieger, then a research scientist at
the University of Texas. Krieger's research set forth two key criteria for defining
"types," if they were to be used in chronological studies and as indicators of
ancient culture areas. Specimens within a "type" must not only share form and
technology, but they must be restricted to specific time periods and geographic
areas. While Krieger saw typology as best used to address regional archaeological
questions, Justice makes a useful effort to group certain related types into broad
geographic "type clusters," a tactic which he feels will better elucidate "the
remains of extinct cultures." He is not entirely successful in this approach, at least
in my view, in that some clusters are too inclusive and diminishes the regional
importance of some types. For example, the Gypsum type of southern California
and the southern Great Basin (dating about 3,000 years ago) is extended all the
way into western Texas, where I am sure it does not occur as originally defined.
Moreover, this is a point type whose shape is too generalized and its cultural con-
text too poorly defined for the "cluster" treatment he advocates.
However, Justice is heartily congratulated for venturing into regions of the west-
ern United States where archaeologists have largely ignored chipped-stone point
typology. California is one of these areas, and while Justice could not have wholly
clarified the garbled situation there, he makes very useful advances. [Indeed, at
the time this review is being written, a colleague and I are studying a collection
from central California and Justice's new book is invaluable.] A similar characteri-
zation can be made for the American Southwest, another area in which point
typology has been largely ignored, perhaps of less interest than the abundant time-
sensitive ceramic types. His typological research in the Southwest is of great rele-
vance to far western Texas, where ancient cultures and their stone tools are often
part of ancient cultural patterns that extend into what is now New Mexico.
These books are essential for any archaeologist who works in the western
United States. Justice's overview covers projectile points from Paleoindian
(11,500 years ago) into Historic times. The books are copiously illustrated by
line drawings, and both volumes have several color plates of specific point types.
There are dozens of maps showing site locations and the extent of the various
"clusters." Justice's careful research is reflected in extensive bibliographies that
are of continuing value to stone-tool scholars. I also find of great importance his
discussions of projectile point raw materials, point-making technqiues, methods
of hafting, functional studies, examples of surviving spear and arrow shafts
found in museum collections, and an overview of weapon systems (the earlier
atlatl replaced much later by the bow and arrow). The books are excellently pro-
duced, bound in cloth and necessarily durable for the research value that they
University of Texas at Austzn
THOMAS R. HESTER
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 107, July 2003 - April, 2004, periodical, 2004; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth101224/m1/146/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.