Texas Almanac, 1952-1953 Page: 35
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BRIEF HISTORY OF TEXAS.
Architecturally, the most noteworthy of t
established at San Antonio in 1720. Above
eston Island to San Antonio Bay, were the
Karankawas, including the Cujanes, Copanes.
Coapites, Cocos. Caraneaguases and other
tribal subclassifications. They were undoubt-
edly cannibalistic and were described by
Cabeza de Vaca and later writers as vicious.
cruel, undependable, and as maintaining gen-
erally a low cultural status.
Tribes of the Rio Grande Plain
Extending southward along the sea coast.
and spreading inland over the Rio Grande
Plain as far as the present Del Rio. and
beyond into Mexico were the Coahuiltican
tribes. Whether these were related by blood,.
or linguistically, to the Karankawas seems
doubtful, but some ethnologists include both
groups in the Pakawa family. The Coahuil-
tican tribes apparently were not bound by
lany sort of confederacy. as were the Caddo
groups, and the individual subtribes were
usually small. Along the coast lay the Paka-
tas proper, the Comecrubos. Cotonanis. and
farther inland were a large number of w-ealk
tribes, including the Pajalates, Orejones.
Paeaos. Tilijayos, Alsapas, Pausanes. Pa-
cuaches. Mescales. Pampopas. Tacames. Chay-
opines. Venados, Pamiquis. Pihuiques. Bor-
rados, Sanipaos, Manos de Perro and some
The Coahuilticans are generally adjudged
as of low cultural level, though under train-
ing of the early missionaries they showed
themselves capable of appreciable advance-
ment. It was among the Indians of this group
that the San Antonio missions were most
successful in their *Christianizing and civiliz-
Central Texas Tribes
Lying northwest of the Karankawas and to
the west of the Didais was a small group of
Indians, including the Tamique, Xaraname
and possibly several other subclassifications.
Records give scant evidence to show whether
or not these tribes were related to the sur-
he Texas Missions is San Jose de Aquaio.
is a view of the cloisters.
rounding powerful groups. lh Kaar iankwas
and Coahuillieans Ito the south . the Conman-
ches ito the west. Tonkawas to the north or
Didais to the east. They di It primarily
along the lower and middle ,)urse of the
Guadalupe. and atl series oif possibly related
small tribes extended xwestward and north-
westward between lthe San Antonio and Colo-
rado Rivers. including the Too, Canluna.
Cava and others.
Lying to the noit h (if those t ribes and
sandwiched between the Caddoes on the east
and the Apaches and Lipans on the west were
the Tonkawa tribes. Their field lay in what
might be designated as present East Central
Texas. extending from Ellis Crunty south-
ward to Bastrop and westward as far as Mills
and Comanche Counties . Among these tribes
were the Tonkawas proper, the Yirane's. the
Mayeyes and Ervipiames.
During the early mission period in Weste rn
Texas. from the present site of San Antonio
as far north. possibly, as the Panhandle., the
Apache stock held sxway. These were not the
true Apaches oif Ne.w Mexico. but cousins that
were designated usually as Lipan Apaches.
They extended from the regions of the Ka-
rankawas and Tanmiqlue westxward across the
Trans-Pecos. As distinguished from the set-
tied and seminomadic tribes of East Texas
and the coast, they were a roving people
possessing fine physiques and certain moral
characteristics but sustaining a culture con-
siderably below that of le Caddoes.
Conquest by the Comanches
To the north of the Lipan Apaches lay the
Comanches. During the early mission period
apparently the Comanches. who were an off-
shoot of the Shoshoni, occupied not more of
*The editor of the Texas Almanac is indebted
to Dr. Carlos E. Castaneda. author of thlie six
published volumes of "tliOur Catholi' tHrilage."
much information ipretsenird in this ( 1ile
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Texas Almanac, 1952-1953, book, 1951; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117137/m1/37/: accessed June 25, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.