Texas Almanac, 1952-1953 Page: 37
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BRIoIEI' HISTORY F TEX.\S.
of the Texas
Later corners, driven before advancing white rlen,
were the Cherokees, Delawares. Seminoles, Ala-
bamnas, Coushattas, Kickapoos and others.
Mexico, in 1605. of the second oldest perma-
nent European community in the United
States, Santa Fe.
Among those who headed expeditions into
this territory was Antonio de Espejo, who
explored the Pecos Valley and Big Bend
country in 1582 while on a relief expedition
to some of the missions in Northern Mexico.
Out of the Coronado expedition, too, came
the first outright attempt at missionary work
among the Indians in the present confines of
the United States. Cabeza de Vaca, a pious
man, had preached to the Indians, and there
had been some priests among those who
landed on the Texas coast with Narvaez, but
the first priest to attempt to Christianize
Indians north of the Rio Grande was Fra
Juan de Padilla. who accompanied Coronado
and stayed behind among the Indians of the
Texas plains, where he suffered martyrdom
near present Amarillo.
Texas' Oldest Communities.
There were no permanent settlements in
Texas resulting immediately from these expe-
ditions. though there was a settlement at El
Paso del Norte, now Juarez. opposite present
El Paso, and one at the present community of
Ojinaga, opposite Presidio--or rather it might
be more accurate to state that the transmu-
tation of long-established Indian villages at
these points into Spanish communities had
The oldest present-day Texas community
came later from these early activities, how-
ever. In 1862, the Pueblo revolt in New Mex-
ico drove out the Spanish and the Indians
who remained loyal to the Spanish. The refu-
gees from two Upper Rio Grande communi-
ties, Ysleta and Socorro, sought safety at the
mission at El Paso del Norte and settled a
few miles down the river, naming their new
communities Ysleta del Sur (south) and
Socorro del Sur. These places, as established
in 16S2. were on the 'ight (present Mexican)
bank iof the river', but t change in the chan-
nel in laler years left them on the Texas
side. Ysleta was settled a little earlier than
The claim of '"oldest 'community" is also
made for the little village of Penitas on the
Rio Grande in Hidalgo County, settled in the
period of the earliest Spanish land grants.
Foregoing references are to places estab-
lished under white, Spanrish sovereignty. In
some instances, aboriginal Indian villages
probably metamorphosed into permanent
white sett lements. One of the most interest
ing records of continuous existence of a vil-
lage in the Southwest is found in the shel
tered little valley where the Rio Conchos and
Alamito Creek flow into the Rio Grande,
from opposite directions, in the Big Bend
country. Here a small patch of good soil in
a vast, rugged country and perennially flow-
ing water in the spring-fetd Conchos undoubt-
edly attracted settlers from the beginning of
aboriginal habitation in this region. Further-
more, the valleys of the two opposing tribu-
taries made a natural passage of the deep
valley of the Rio Grande. An Indian village
was here when Cabteza de Vaca visited the
area about 1532. It was called La Junta by
the early Spanish, now Ojinaga. It is on the
Mexican side of the river. The record of con-
tinuous settlement on the American side, loca
tion of present-day Presidio, is less definite.
De Soto's Followers in Texas.
While several expeditions traversed WVest
Texas in search of the Seven Cities and
Quivira, the only expedition touching East
Texas soil. other than those already men-
tioned, was that of Hernando de Soto, which
pushed westward from the Mississippi after
De Soto's death. It entered Texas at the
northeast corner and proceeded into North
Central Texas, and possibly into Central
Texas. This was in 1542 immediately after
Coronado tr'axersed Nortlhxest Teats.
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Texas Almanac, 1952-1953, book, 1951; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117137/m1/39/: accessed March 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.