Texas Almanac, 1952-1953 Page: 43
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BRIEF HISTORY OF TEXAS.
United States, forcing commercial relations
It was this act that brought the first storm
of protest and added to the several under-
lying causes of the Texas Revolution. Nei-
ther the National Constitution of 1824 nor the
Constitution of the State of Coahuila-Texas
of 1827 granted certain rights accepted as
inalienable by - the Anglo-Americans, notably
trial by jury and the right of ball. Further-
more, a state religion was not to their liking
and particularly obnoxious was the require-
ment that settlers in the colonies be Cath-
olics. Most of the American settlers were
Protestants, and they did not comply with
the regulation in good faith or evaded it
Clash at Anahuac.
A former American who had become a
Mexican army officer, Col. John D. Bradburn,
in command of the customs house at ,Ana-
huac, aroused the resentment of surrounding
colonists by interfering with their plans foi
obtaining legal titles to land that they had
acquired as squatters. Further, he arrested,
apparently without good cause, several col-
onists, including Wilhliam Barret Travis. A
small force of Americans gathered .and
attacked the town July 13, 1832. Bradburn
promised to release the prisoners and the
attacking force retired momentarily.
Turtle Bayou Resolutions.
Bradburn failed to release the prisoners,
but the attackers decided to await reinforce-
ments. In the meantime, in their camp on
Turtle Bayou, they passed resolutions declar-
ing their attempt not a revolt against Mexico.,
but an expedition on behalf of Gen. Lopez
de Santa Anna, who was leading a revolution
against President Bustamente. Santa Anna
was then posing as a liberal in opposition to
the dictatorial methods of Bustamente. Be-
fore the attack on Anahuac could be resumed,
Colonel Piedras arrived with a force from
Nacogdoches and released the prisoners.
Battle of Velasco.
Although only a few shots were fired at
Anahuac, the conflict had caused the first
actual engagement of the growing Texas-
Mexican controversy. A detachment bringing
two cannon from Brazoria to camp at Turtle
Bayou, via the Brazos, was refused passage
by the Mexican commander at Velasco at the
mouth of the Brazos. After a battle, June 26,
the Texans were victorious, capturing. Col.
Domingo Ugartechea and his command.
Following this conflict, Texans took ap-
preciable part in the revolt of Santa Anna
against Bustamente. Government garrisons at
Nacogdoches, San Antonio and other points
were forced out or made to switch allegiance.
First San Felipe Convention.
The coming of Santa Anna into prominence
as a liberal and friend of the people led the
Texas colonists to ask for reforms. A conven-
tion waseheld at San Felipe de Austin Oct. 1,.
1832, at which Stephen F. Austin was elected
chairman and a memorial addressed to both
federal and state governments was adopted
asking repeal of the law passed by the Mexi-
can Congress ki 1830, asking settlement of
certain land titles in East Texas, seeking the
right to use the English language in public
business, the privilege of organizing a militia,
separation of Texas from the State of Coa-
huila and certain other things.
Second San Felipe Convention.
Nothing came of the first convention at
San Felipe other than the further arousing of
distrust on the part of the Mexicans, who
were unfamiliar with Anglo-American ideas
of peaceful assembly. When Santa Anna be-
came President early in 1833 another conven-
tion was called, meeting at San Felipe de
Austin April 1, 1833. This convention adopted
resolutions similar to those of the first as-
sembly and, in addition, drew up a proposed
State Constitution, the Constitution being
drafted by a committee headed by Sam Hous-
ton. Stephen F. Austin headed a commission
elected to carry the new Constitution and
petition for reforms to Mexico City for ap-
Austin proceeded to Mexico City and after
several months of delay, received certain
promises from Santa Anna and started home-
ward. But prior to extracting the promises
from Santa Anna, he had in a fit of impa-
tience indiscreetly addressed a letter to Texas
friends advising them to go ahead with or-
ganization of separate statehood, though
authorization was still lacking. The letter
fell into the hands of Mexican officials and
Austin was thrown into prison. After fifteen
months of imprisonment he was released in'
1835 and returned to Texas.
Austin had been genuinely friendly toward
Mexico; he had refused to assist in the Fre-
donian rebellion and lent his influence against
its success; he had been conservative during
the difficulties of 1832 and seemed sincerely
desirous of effecting a settlement that would
establish Texas as a permanent member of
the Mexican federation of states. He had
done so despite pressure exerted upon him
by some of his fellow colonists to join the
faction favoring revolution. By their action
the Mexicans lost the confidence of the man
who was their best friend and the most in-
fluential of the colonial leaders.
When. early in 1835. Santa Anna sent a
company of soldiers to Anahuac to assist in
the collection of duties, a force of colonists
under William B. Travis marched on the
town and forced the Mexicans to surrender
their arms and leave for San Antonio. As a
result, General Cos, brother-in-law of Santa
Anna and commander of northern Mexico,
ordered the arrest of Travis and several
others. Alarmed at the situation, several
leading colonists endeavored to effect a peace-
ful adjustment, but Cos refused to accept
explanations until Travis and other Texans
were under arrest. It was at this juncture
that Austin returned from Mexico and an-
nounced that he had become convinced that
war was Texas' only recourse.
Affairs in Texas had led Santa Anna to
the decision to station a military force in
the state. Gen. Martin Perfect de Cos, his
brother-in-law, had been placed in charge of
the northern states, and Col. Domingo de
Ugartechea was stationed in San Antonio in
charge of the military forces in the State of
Battle at Gonzales.
While there had been several prior armed
conflicts, what may be properly considered
the first battle of the Texas Revolution was
that at Gonzales Oct. 2, 1835. Colonel Ugar-
techea sent a company to Gonzales to take
possession of a cannon, but the Mexicans
were attacked by the Texans and defeated.
The news of this battle spread and volun-
teers poured into Gonzales. It was in this
battle that the Texans used the famous flag
bearing the words, "Come and Take It," re-
ferring to the cannon which the Mexicans had
It was decided to march on San Antonio
and, on Oct. 11. Austin was elected comman-
der in chief. In the meantime, on Oct. 9. a
small band of volunteers had surprised the
Mexican garrison at Goliad and captured a
store of military supplies.
A detachment of Austin's army had a light
engagement with Mexican cavalry at Mission
Concepcion Oct. 28, and on Nov. 26 the so-
called "grass fight" occurred south of San
Antonio. This skirmish was occasioned by the
rumor that an approaching burro train car-
ried silver for the pay of the Mexican garri-
son at San Antonio, but when captured the
burros' burden proved to be hay destined
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Texas Almanac, 1952-1953, book, 1951; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117137/m1/45/: accessed April 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.