Texas Almanac, 1952-1953 Page: 45
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a convention was called to meet at Washing-
ton-on-the-Brazos March 1, 1836. Here on
March 2 it declared Texas independent A
Constitution was adopted.
David G. Burnet was named provisional
President and Sam Houston was again chosen
as Commander in Chief of the Army. This
took place while the battle of the Alamo was
President Burnet set up his government at
Harrisburg. Houston started for San Antonio,
but at Gonzales, on March 13, learned of the
fate of the defenders of the Alamo. At Gon-
zales he had found something fewer than 400
men; and sent orders to Fannin to retreat
from Goliad and himself fell back beyond the
Colorado above Columbus. It was his intention
to make a stand here; his force was strength-
ened by the arrival of volunteers and he spent
several days drilling his men. Hearing of the "
loss of Fannin's force, however, he retreated
across the Brazos at San Felipe and marched
to Hempstead, where he spent several days
Flight of Colonists
The center of Texas colonial population lay
in the territory between Lower Colorado and
Lower Brazos. The successive tragedies at
San Antonio, San Patricio, Agua Dulce. Goli-
ad, Refugio and Victoria, and the retreat of
the Texas Army across the Brazos created
panic. The flight of the colonists from the
path of the oncoming Mexican Army came to
be known as the "Runaway Scrape." It cre-
ated confusion in military as well as civil
population because Houston had difficulty
holding in ranks men whose families had
been left behind west of the Brazos.
Santa Anna Marches Eastward
After the victories at San Antonio, Coleto
and nearby towns, Santa Anna apparently
assumed that the war was over and spread
out his army fan-shaped to sweep the coun-
try. With the main army he drove eastward
toward the seat of civil government at Har-
risburg, forcing President Burnet to take
refuge with government headquarters on
Santa Anna's rapid march eastward left
Houston in his rear and the Texas com-
mander followed. Finding Harrisburg desert-
ed, Santa Anna moved on to the junction of
San Jacinto River and Buffalo Bayou. Between
April 14 and April 18, 1836. Houston's army
covered the distance between Hempstead and
Harrisburg, which was found deserted. On
April 20, the Texans took up a position oppo-
site Santa Anna in his camp at the confluence
of the San Jacinto and Buffalo Bayou.
Battle of San Jacinto
The arrival of General Cos with 400 Mexi-
cans on the following day increased Santa
Anna's force to about 1,600. Houston had
under his command between *700 and 800.
The Mexican superiority in numbers caused
Santa Anna, flushed with his victories, to be
careless. Seizing the opportunity, the Texans
attacked suddenly during the afternoon of
April 21 while the "Napoleon of the West,"
as Santa Anna is reputed to have called him-
self, took his siesta. The Texans charged to
the strains of "Won't You Come to the
Bower?", and with the battle cry, "Remem-
ber the Alamo; remember Goliad." The Mexi-
can army was routed with a loss, according
to Houston's report, of 630 killed, 280 wound-
ed, and 730 captured. Practically the entire
Mexican force was killed, wounded or taken
prisoner. The Texans sustained a loss of two
killed and twenty-three wounded. Among the
Mexicans captured was General Santa Anna.
Significance of San Jacinto
The sweeping victory assured for Texas the
independence it had declared on March 2, and
eventually changed the history of the entire
western part of the United States. Had San
Jacinto been lost Texas would not have been
annexed to the United States ten years later,
RY OF TEXAS 45
and there would have been no war between
the United States and Mexico, which resulted
in the accession by the United States of most
of its present Rocky Mountain and Pacific
Treaty of Velasco
On May 14 the treaty of Velasco was signed
at Velasco, temporary capital of the Republic.
by which the Mexicans were bound to retreat
beyond the Rio Grande and Santa Anna was
to be released on promise to i eturn to Mexico
and intercede with his government on behalf
of Texas independence. President Burnet
found himself unable to carry out the last part
of the treaty, however, because of popular
sentiment against Santa Anna, and the Mexi-
can President was held prisoner for about six
months before he was released
The Texas Navy
The foregoing brief account of the Texas
Revolution omits one colorful chapter, that of
the navy. Four small vessels, the Invincible,
the Brutus, the Independence and the Liberty
constituted the Texas Navy during the Revo-
lution. It harassed Mexican commerce and
made partly ineffective the Mexicans' attempt
to blockade Texas ports and prevent the
bringing in of supplies from the United States.
The Independence was captured and two
other ships were wrecked shortly after the
close of the Revolution.
Because of the threat of blockade of Texas
ports by Mexico's navy, after the founding
of the Texas Republic, the government of the
republic purchased five or six vessels from
the United States and sent them out to harass
the Mexican coast and prey on its commerce.
Under the command of Commodore Edwin W.
Moore, a former officer in the United States
Navy, the navy attacked and captured several
coastal towns in Tabasco and Yucatan. The
navy operated until the middle of 1843 when
it returned to Galveston from its last expedi-
tion. It had been effective in keeping open
Texas ports, operating part of the time under
orders and part of the time so flagrantly in
disobedience of orders that at one time Presi-
dent Houston threatened officially to disown
the little fleet. While Commodore Moore some-
times used his own judgment instead of that
of his 'superiors, he usually vindicated himself
by his daring and genius as a naval com-
mander, and the net result of the operations
of the Texas Navy, both during and following
the Revolution were of great benefit to the
new republic. At the time of the annexation
of Texas three or four of the vessels were in
sufficiently good condition to be incorporated
Into the navy of the United States.
THE REPUBLIC OF TEXAS
With the dying out of enthusiasm over the
victory at San Jacinto, Texans settled down
to a realization that their task of establishing
a free and independent country had only be-
gun. The threat of renewed military offensive
by Mexico, which had promptly repudiated
the Treaty of Velasco, was a source of con-
stant alarm. Mexico continued the threat of
invasion of Texas until the end of the Re-
public, although the new country succeeded
in getting the recognition of the United
States, Beligum, France, Great Britain, Hol-
land and some of the German states.
The Indians who were held in restraint by
the, tactfulness of Houston during the Revolu-
tion and the first two or three disordered
years thereafter became an increasing prob-
lem, especially as the expanding population
of the state thrust the frontier westward,
encroaching upon the lands of the powerful
Comanches. The little Republic was also be-
set by financial difficulties, being without
resources except its vast public domain which
was not readily convertible into cash.
*Total number of men recruited in the army of
the Texas Republic was about 2,000, with an
additional 1,000 available, according to the rec-
ords of the General Land Office of Texas.
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Texas Almanac, 1952-1953, book, 1951; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117137/m1/47/: accessed July 21, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.