Texas Almanac, 1952-1953 Page: 57
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BRIEF HISTORY OF TEXAS
posts and camps for the United States Army
and twenty-one prisoner-of-war camps. In
addition, headquarters of the Eighth Service
Command (operating agency in the South-
west for Army Service Forces) covering Tex-
as, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana and New
Mexico was in Dallas. Headquarters for the
Fourth Army supervising training of men in
nine states for combat overseas was at Fort
Sam Houston, San Antonio. Previous to that,
from 1932 to 1944, the famed Third Army,
training men from Arizona to Florida, was
headquartered at Fort Sam Houston. The
Third left San Antonio Feb. 15, 1944, and
was succeeded by the Fourth.
Texas was the leading state in development
of airmen because of the mild climate and
favorable terrain National headquarters of
the wartime Army Air Force Training Com-
mand was in Fort Worth. From Jan. 1, 1942,
until May 1, 1944, the command at Texas
installations trained 44,958 pilots, 12,534 bom-
bardiers and 12,706 navigators. At the peak
of training there were more than forty air-
fields and stations in the state. The Southern
Defense Command, activated in July, 1941. to
handle matters concerning defense of Gulf
coast and Mexican border areas, had head-
quarters at Fort Sam Houston and was
absorbed in 1945 by the Eastern Defense
Navy installations were not as numerous,
but were key activities in development of the
naval force. The Naval Air Training Base at
Corpus Christi was the world's largest naval
air-training activity, covering 20,000 acres
and with an investment of $100,000,000. In a
sprawling establishment located in three
counties cadets received intermediate train-
ing, final stage of navy flight instruction
preceding graduation and award of wings.
Other navy activities included the Naval Air
Station at Dallas, Marine Air Station at Eagle
Mountain Lake north of Fort Worth, Camp
Wallace near Galveston and miscellaneous ac-
tivities for administration, procuring war
materiel, inspection of ordnance and recruit-
ing. Six colleges and universities had V-12
units to train future officers and give stu-
dents navy training along with college work.
A fev7 had Marine detachments. Headquarters
of the Coast Guard were in Galveston, and
the navy had supervisory duties in connection
with shipbuilding activities along the Gulf
An estimated 750,000 Texans served in
World War II. As of June 30, 1945, there were
185,034 Texans in the navy, Marine Corps and
Coast Guard. Answering the call of the Army,
including Air Forces, were 542,000 Texans.
Included in the service forces from Texas
were more than 12,000 women, 8,000 of whom
were in the Army. Personnel from Texas
included 153,167 men in the Navy, 22,091 in
the Marines and 7,773 in the Coast Guard.
In early 1946 a survey showed more than
thirty Texans in the Army had received the
Congressional Medal of Honor, including Lt.
Audie Murphy of Farmersville, "most deco-
rated soldier of World War II." Six Texans
in the Navy received the highest award, the
Medal of Honor, including Commander Sam-
uel D. Dealey of Dallas, killed in action, who
was termed "most decorated man in the
Navy." An additional ninety-two Texans had
received the Navy Cross for World War II
Fighting outfits with a heavy complement
of Texans and usually called "Texas outfits"
were: 36th Division, with its famed Lost Bat-
talion in Java and European record as first
Americans to set foot on European soil in
1943 through invasion of Italy; 112th Cavalry
Division, Pacific theater; 2d Infantry Divi-
sion, European theater; 10$d Infantry Regi-
ment, Pacific theater; 1st Cavalry Division,
European theater; 90th Infantry Division,
Either born in Texas or a resident of Texas
for a considerable time were 155 Army gen-
erals, including Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower,
native of Denison, who was supreme Allied
commander in Europe and later Chief of
Staff, and Gen. Walter Krueger, commanding
general of the Sixth Army, from San Antonio
Twelve admirals in the Navy were from
Texas, including Adm. Chester W. Nimitz of
Fredericksburg, commander in chief of the
Pacific Fleet. Director of the Women's Army
Corps was Col. Oveta Culp Hobby of Houston.
first woman ever to wear an Army uniform
as a member of the Women's Army Auxiliary
Corps. More than 8,000 Texans were min
the WAC. Early in 1945 approximately 4.200
Texas women were in Women Accepted for
Voluntary Emergency Service, or WAVES
(Navy). Others volunteered in the SPARS
According to figures furnished by the War
Department in June, 1946, from a cut-off-date
of Jan. 31, 1946, Texas soldiers suffered 15,764
fatalities out of the estimated 542,000 respond-
ing to calls for service in the World Wor II
Army. The 15,764 deaths comprised 4 72 per
cent in the Army's total number of dead and
missing. Of the. 15,764 dead, 8,403 were killed
in action, 1,166 died of wounds, 48 died of
injuries, 4.935 were nonbattle deaths, 1,134
were adjudged dead on the findings of a
board after missing for long periods
Texas casualties in the United States Navy.
including Coast Guard and Marines. totaled
7,258 according to an announcement in Au-
gust, 1946. Of the 7,258, a total of 3,023 died
in combat and 84 died in prison camp; 3,884
were wounded and 267 were released prison-
ers. This total represents only those on
active duty, resulting directly from enemy
action or from operational activities against
the enemy in war zones. Casualties in the
United States area or as a result of disease
or homicide in any location were not included.
Governor Stevenson wao succeeded by Gov.
Beauford H. Jester, Jan. 21. 1947, after win-
ning in one of the most hotly disputed races
in recent Texas political history. There were
a number of contestants in the first primary
campaign, but this was narrowed to Jester
and Dr. Homer P. Rainey in the second pri-
mary. Principal issue was the removal of
Rainey as president of the University of
Texas, Nov. 1, 1944, by a board of regents
whom Rainey charged with restricting aca-
demic freedom at the university. In the run-
off primary election Jester defeated Rainey
by a vote of 700,178 to 361,178.
The Fiftieth Legislature meeting in Gov-
ernor Jester's first administration submitted
a number of important amendments to the
Constitution which were adopted by the
people, notably one abolishing the state ad
valorem tax for general revenue purposes,
and one reducing the Confederate pension
tax from 7c to 2c and levying a 5c tax for
the state colleges. On April 16, 1947, the ex-
plosion at Texas City of the French S.S.
Grandeamp, loaded with chemicals, killed 512
people and injured 3,000, with property dam-
age of $40,000,000 to $70,000,000.
Governor Jester was re-elected in 1948.
Most notable race that year was between
former Gov. Coke R. Stevenson and U.S.
Representative Lyndon B. Johnson for U.S.
Senator. Stevenson led in the first primary
but the count in the second primary gave
Johnson an 87-vote lead, the closest major
race in Texas political history. The Fifty-
first Legislature set a landmark in Texas
educational history by enacting the Gilmer-
Aikin law, reorganizing the public-school
system of the state. (See index, "Gilmer-
Aikin Act.") Support of public schools, higher
education and state hospitals was increased.
The regular session of the Fifty-first Legis-
lature was the longest in Texas history. It
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Texas Almanac, 1952-1953, book, 1951; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117137/m1/59/: accessed July 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.