The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 29, July 1925 - April, 1926 Page: 83
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Early Art of Terrestrial Measurement and Its Practice 83
able men. The cosmographer was often a military engineer as
Martin de Palacios with the Vizcaino Expedition of 1603.
While the coasts were being charted, the interior was under in-
vestigation by explorers. Since this paper has for its purpose an
inquiry into the exploration of the border states, and more par-
ticularly Texas, I shall refer chiefly to the expeditions pertinent
to this area. These expeditions set out from Mexico proper and
were called "entradas," or entries, into the frontier provinces. In
the earlier years some of these entradas were purely for loot, such
as the famous one of Coronado in 1542, which went as far into the
continent as the Kansas River. The later entradas were of a more
formal and administrative nature. The earliest mention I have
found of an intelligent effort to record the route of march is in the
diary of Antonio Espejo who went into New Mexico in 1582. He
says in one place, "Here the latitude was taken and we found our-
selves in exactly 37 north."
A most notable explorer was Eusebio Kino, a German who had
studied in the University of Freiburg, and who became a leading
authority on cosmography. He joined the Franciscan order and
was sent as a missionary to Mexico. His field was what is now
Arizona and Lower California. This area he mapped and de-
scribed in writings. He made many journeys, "with mariner's
compass and astrolabe in hand," as he says. The following from
his diary, March 3, 1702, is worth quoting: "At mid-day I took
the altitude of the sun with the astrolabe and found it to be 520,
which, adding 6o south declination of that day made 581. The
complement of 900 is 31 and this was the altitude of the pole or
the geographic latitude in which we found ourselves."
Of particular interest to Texans is the entrada made by Captain
Alonzo de Leon in 1689. He went in search of the Frenchman
La Salle and his followers, whom he wished to take prisoners and
expel from the region now known as Texas. De Leon was a soldier
of renown, an energetic and able explorer.
On his journeys into Texas,-he made five,-he gave names to
the streams he crossed. Many of these names survive to this day:
the Nueces, Hondo, Medina, Leon, Salado, Guadalupe, San Marcos,
Trinity. The names themselves suggest circumstances connected
with the discoveries of all the water courses but one, the Medina.
It seems to me conclusive that he named this stream for Pedro
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 29, July 1925 - April, 1926, periodical, 1926; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117141/m1/97/: accessed April 24, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.