The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 38, July 1934 - April, 1935 Page: 136
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South westernn Historical Quarterly
Brazos in 1851. Accompanied by a small escort under Major
Henry Hopkins Sibley, Second Dragoons, Cooper left Fort Graham
on June 5 of that year. A four days' march in a west, north-
westerly course, passing Barnard's Trading House, Comanche Peak,
Bald Head Peak, and Fish Eating Creek, brought him to the
Kichai Indian village, situated in a rich and extensive valley on
the left bank of the Brazos. Opposite was the Caddo village,
about fifteen miles below the Clear Fork of the Brazos and some
2,000 feet above the level of Fort Graham. The country traversed
varied greatly; a high prairie alternated with a rocky and mountain-
ous region and table-lands. Returning, Cooper crossed to the right
bank of the river at the Caddo village and pursued an east, south-
easterly course till he struck his former trail at Comanche Peak.
The journey to the Palo Pinto3 was over an extremely rough coun-
try, mountain gorges and precipitous cliffs impeding the march.
From the Palo Pinto to the Comanche Peak the road descended
over a high rolling country. Passing the Comanche Peak on the
right, Cooper struck his former trail and crossed the Brazos at
Barnard's Trading House. The round trip to the Indian villages
extended over some 230 miles.
During his examination, Cooper visited four of the six Indian
villages located on the Brazos.4 Each of these tribes had its par-
ticular chief, all of whom were united under Jos6 Maria as IHead
Chief. Cooper found the Indians perfectly peaceable and friendly
disposed toward the white man. They were tillers of the soil, rais-
ing large quantities of corn and vegetables. But game, their chief
reliance, was scarce, and a large number of them were starving and
looking to the federal government for help. As a protection for
these Indians, as well as for the whites, Cooper recommended the
establishment of a military post near the Caddo village, where
the Comanche Trail passed. Cooper's suggestion was carried out.
In November of the following year Fort Phantom Hill was erected
"The Palo Pinto was a bold stream about nine miles north of the Toni
village. Cooper to Jones, June 14, 1851. IMS., Letters Received, Secretary
of War, Old Records Section, Adjutant General's Office, Washington.
(Hereafter cited as MS., L.R., S.W., O.R.S., A.G.O.)
'The four tribes visited were the Toni, Kichai, Caddo, and Anadarko.
The other two tribes, the Waco and Tawakoni, had their villages six miles
beyond the Kichai. Ibid.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 38, July 1934 - April, 1935, periodical, 1935; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117143/m1/150/: accessed October 23, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.