The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 38, July 1934 - April, 1935 Page: 139
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The Texas Frontier, 1848-1861
nent camp for astronomical observations. Emory's camp was en-
livened by the arrival of large numbers of immigrants bound for
California. These pioneers, though brave in spirit, were in a very
destitute condition. Continuing southward, Green came to the
valley of the Rio Cibolo, which he found very fertile. The point
where his trail entered this valley he considered one of the most
favorable positions north of the Pecos for the establishment of a
military post. The inhabitants of this region were characterized
by extreme laziness and by thieving propensities. Establishing his
camp at Presidio del Norte, Green returned to El Paso for addi-
On September 13 the march was resumed from Presidio del
Norte. Crossing the Rio Grande, Green abandoned the wagons
for pack mules. In the vicinity of Comanche Crossing he en-
countered a band of hostile Comanche Indians, but a bold and
diplomatic parley with their chief, Mona, resulted in the friendly
departure of the red men. The expedition continued down the
river to the St. Carmel Mountains and encamped at the Vado de
Fleche (Ford of the Arrows). Green considered this point as the
best suited for a military post on the entire Rio Grande. Another
feasible site, not as strategically situated, was Presidio San Vi-
cente, where the river makes the big bend. Having great difficulty
in finding trails and water on the American side of the river, the
exploring party crossed over to the Mexican side. Here they found
the country no more cheering. Near Santa Rosa, Green found a
settlement of Indians and runaway negroes under the leadership of
White Cat. The Mexican government had given this Indian
chieftain land on condition that he defend the frontier from other
Indians. From Santa Rosa, Green struck out northeastward to the
Rio Grande. Passing the settlements of Arroyo de San Jos6, Los
Cabeceras, and San Fernando, the command arrived at Fort Dun-
can on November 24.18
Army officers stationed in Texas were constantly trying to find
Rio Grande. Sen. Ex. Does., 34 Cong., 1 Sess., No. 108, pt. 1, p. 1; John R.
Bartlett, Personal Narrative of the Explorations and Incidents in Texas,
New Mexico, California, Sonora, and Chihuahua, connected with the
United States and Mexican Boundary Comnission during the Years, 1850-
1853 (New York, 1854), I, 3-6.
"Green to Cooper, December 16, 1852. MS., Letters Received, Head-
quarters of the Army, Old Records Section, Adjutant General's Office,
Washington. (Hereafter cited as MS., L.R., H.A., O.R.S., A.G.O.)
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 38, July 1934 - April, 1935, periodical, 1935; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117143/m1/153/: accessed September 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.