The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 71, July 1967 - April, 1968 Page: 27
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Influence on the Early Cattle Industry of Arizona
Santa Cruz rivers were knee-deep in grass, they also accommodated
more than their share of Apaches with a seemingly insatiable taste for
beef. Perhaps the most notable of these early adventurers was William
S. Oury, a Virginian by birth who had served as a messenger for
Travis at the Alamo, participated in the Mier raid, and succumbed to
the gold fever in '49. Returning home from the diggings by the south-
ern route in 1856, he stopped in Arizona, decided to settle there, and
two years later established a herd on the Santa Cruz near the old
adobe pueblo of Tucson. In the late 186o's, Oury imported the first
blooded American stock into Arizona, where they contrasted favorably
with the bonier Sonora longhorns which constituted the cattle popu-
lation of the region south of the Gila.' In the same decade, herds were
also introduced by Americans to the virgin grasslands in the northern
part of the region, around the mining town of Prescott and along the
Little Colorado. Except for a few Missouri animals, this was West
Texas cowmen who arrived in Arizona shortly after Appomattox
found it not too difficult to accept Union Army gold. The "men in
Kersey blue," who were withdrawn at the start of the rebellion,
returned to the newly created Territory of Arizona in 1866 to provide
protection against the Apaches. The establishment of military posts
meant that beef was in heavy demand-and the major source of supply
was Texas. This was fine with the Texans, since the northern outlets
could not absorb the procreation of longhorns that had occurred dur-
ing the war. Thus Thomas T. Hunter arrived in Arizona with a herd
"gathered in Central Texas" in 1867, sold them to the military, and
returned with more beeves the following year.' Jefferson Davis Adams
left Lampasas County with his family in 1868 and entered Arizona
where he would gain prominence as a cowman-sheriff. It was also
during the immediate postwar period that Henry C. Hooker, an entre-
preneurial type from California, first viewed the untapped grazing
OCornelius C. Smith, "Some Unpublished History of the Southwest," Arizona Historical
Review, IV (April, 1931), 13; Amelia Williams, "A Critical Study of the Siege of the
Alamo and of the Personnel of its Defenders," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, XXXVII
(January, 1934), 164; Clara M. Love, "History of the Cattle Industry in the Southwest,"
ibid., XIX (April, 1916), 388-389; Richard J. Morrisey, "The Early Range Cattle Industry
in Arizona," Agricultural History, XXIV (July, 1950), 152.
'Frank C. Lockwood, Pioneer Days in Arizona (New York, 1932), 229.
'Thomas Thompson Hunter, "Early Days in Arizona," Arizona Historical Review, III
(April, 1930), 105, 117.
'Roscoe G. Willson, Pioneer Cattlemen of Arizona (2 vols.; Phoenix, 1951-1956), I, 28.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 71, July 1967 - April, 1968, periodical, 1968; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117145/m1/45/: accessed July 22, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.