The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 71, July 1967 - April, 1968 Page: 451
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facts. For example, he argues that many picture groups in the dis-
tinctive Pecos River style are best explained as representations of
ritual behavior connected with local shamanistic societies. Yet New-
comb never presses his own interpretations too hard, and he consist-
ently leaves the door open for alternative hypotheses. The same ob-
jectivity is shown when he attempts to identify certain art styles with
prehistoric groups known through archeology or with better known
tribal groups of the historic period. In each case he presents the
evidence fairly and then judiciously evaluates the probabilities. It is
a pleasure to follow the course taken by a disciplined but imagina-
tive mind through such a mass of refractory material. This book con-
stitutes a solid foundation for all future studies of Indian graphic art
in Texas and surrounding regions.
University of Texas at Austin T. N. CAMPBELL
They Sang for Horses: The Impact of the Horse on Navajo and Apache
Folklore. By LaVerne Harrell Clark. Tucson (University of Ari-
zona Press), 1966. Pp. xxii+225. Maps, illustrations, bibliography,
and index. $v1.oo.
People in the Southwest know the Apache and the Navajo. They
have inspired folklore and detailed historical studies, just as once they
inspired fear in the lonely settlers who moved into their area. They
ranged from southern Utah on the northwest to the Nueces River
country in Texas on the southeast, and from south central Oklahoma
on the northeast into 'the states of Chihuahua and Sonora on the south-
west. Grouped under the general name of Southern Athapascans, they
have come down to us as Navajos, plain Apache, Chiricahua, Jicarilla,
Mescalero, Lipan, and Kiowa. In these mid-twentieth century years
Texas has no Apache, at least not in an organized sense, but it has a
strong Apache heritage. This is the story of the Navajo and Apache
in the free pre-reservation days when these two tribes had the South-
west almost entirely to themselves and when they roamed through
a great unbridled horse age. Few Indians placed nearly as much
emphasis on the horse in their culture, and none placed more. Al-
though the horse may have begun on the American continent, it had
completely disappeared, known nowadays only through the work of
paleontologists. So it took the coming of the white man, first Columbus
and then Cort6z, to bring the horse to, the attention of the seven-
teenth century Indian. The animal did more to change their way of
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 71, July 1967 - April, 1968, periodical, 1968; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117145/m1/501/?rotate=90: accessed January 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.