The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 73, July 1969 - April, 1970 Page: 304

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into the army, their lands taken away, and forced to bear new and
heavy taxes, the Indians resorted to race or caste wars in various parts
of Mexico in an effort to achieve the rights of full citizenship. Liberal-
ism was Creole in orientation in Mexico, and the Indian was ignored
from 1821 until 1853. Professor Hale also describes the struggle be-
tween the liberal proponents of laissez faire and the conservative
supporters of direct government intervention. A gradual shift from
mining to manufacturing is noted, but Mexico remained basically
an agricultural economy.
The author has done an excellent job of tracing the growth of
liberal philosophy in Mexico, with Jos6 Maria Luis Mora as its chief
spokesman, and its effect on the political, economic, and social de-
velopment of Mexican life in institutions. It will be worth the
reader's time to study this book carefully.
U. S. Office of Education, Washington, D. C. THOMAS E. COTNER
Intellectual Precursors of the Mexican Revolution, goo1900-191g3. By
James D. Cockcroft. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1969.
Pp. 329. Maps, diagrams, appendices, bibliography, index. $8.50.)
This work is a case study of a group of intellectuals (six in all, four
being from the state of San Luis Potosi) who not only provided an
intellectual framework for the Mexican Revolution but who also,
to varying degrees, actively participated in fomenting the events that
followed 19xo. The "Potosinos" are engineer Camilo Arriaga, jour-
nalist Juan Serabia, educator Librado Rivera, and lawyer Antonio
Diaz Soto y Gama; also examined are the ideas and activities of
Francisco I. Madero, Mexico's first popularly elected president (1911-
1913), and Ricardo Flores Mag6n, leader of the radical Partido Liberal
Mexicano (PLM).
The book is divided into three parts, the first of which succinctly
analyzes the political, economic, and social conditions in prerevolu-
tionary San Luis Potosi and describes the social background of the
revolutionary intellectuals. In this first part the underlying theme of
the work emerges: the precursor movement was led by intellectuals
of widely diverse socio-economic origins who were never in ideo-
logical concord. Madero, for instance, was a classic example of an
establishment liberal who sought rather modest political change,
whereas Flores Mag6n was an anarchist. In San Luis Potosi, at least,
"the prolonged gravity of the 19igo7 economic crisis, the increasing

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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 73, July 1969 - April, 1970, periodical, 1970; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117147/m1/326/ocr/: accessed December 4, 2016), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.