The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 95, July 1991 - April, 1992 Page: 178
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Southwestern Hzstorical Quarterly
While the history of the dispute on the Louisiana-Texas frontier has
somewhat been neglected by scholars, the historians who have written
on the subject have overlooked the importance of the Indian tribes of
the region. By unveiling the active role the Kadohadacho played in this
controversy, the result is a better understanding of the situation along
the Louisiana-Texas frontier following the Louisiana Purchase.'
The Kadohadacho were one of three loosely organized confedera-
cies that have come to be known as the Caddo. When Europeans first
established themelves in the area in the late seventeenth century, there
were perhaps as many as eight thousand Caddos.' The Kadohadacho
confederacy consisted of four tribes who lived along the bend of the
Red River near the Arkansas, Texas, and Oklahoma border.' Farther
downstream were the Yatasi, the Dousitioni, and the Lower Natchi-
toches, the three tribes of the Natchitoches confederacy, which was cen-
tered around the modern town of Natchitoches, Louisiana. The largest
confederacy was the Hasinai who lived along the upper reaches of the
Neches and Angelina rivers in East Texas. Nine principal tribes were
included among the Hasinai, and they were located in four general
The three Caddo confederacies shared the same language, Caddoan,
and the same impressive culture. They were productive, sedentary ag-
riculturalists who had a well-defined political structure, and each indi-
vidual tribe was governed by a hereditary chief, or caddz."
2Most particularly Isaac Joshn Cox, "The Louisiana-Texas Frontier," Quaiteily of the Texas
State Hzstorzal Associatzon, X (July, 19o6), 1-75, XVII (July, 1913), 1-42, XVII (Oct , 1913),
140-175 (cited hereafter as QTSHA); Cox, "The Explorations of the Louisiana Frontier,
1803- 18o6," Amerncan HzstortralAssocation Annual Repo t (1904), 151-174, 274-284, and Cox,
"The Early Exploration of Louisiana," University Studies, Series 2, Vol. 2, No 1 (Cincinnati,
Ohio- University of Cincinnati Press, 19o06) The excellent work of Dan L Flores, Jefferson and
Southwestern Exploration- The F, eenan and Custs Acc.ounts of the Red River of 18o6 (Norman: Uni-
versity of Oklahoma Press, 1984), does integrate the Indian tribes into the story until 1806.
'John Reed Swanton, "Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians,"
Bureau of Anerican Ethnology, Bulletin 132 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Ofhce,
'Stephen Williams, "The Aboriginal Location of the Kadohadacho and Related Tribes," in
Ward H Goodenough, Explorations in Cultural Anthropology (New York McGraw-Hill, 1964),
'Swanton, "Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians," 12-13,
Herbert E[ugenc] Bolton, "'The Native Tribes About the East Texas Missions," QTSHA, XI
(Apr, 19o8), 249-276.
6'l'he best overall views of Caddo culture are William Joyce Grifhth, The Ilanaz Indans of
East Texas as seen by Europeans, 1687-1772, Middle American Research Institute, Philological
and Documentary Studies, vol 2, no 3 (New Orleans: Tulane University, 1954), 43-165; Her-
bert Eugene Bolton, The Hasmass. Southern Caddoans as seen by the Ea hlest Europeans, ed. Russell M.
Magnaghi (Norman. University of Oklahoma Press, 1987), Vynola Beaver Newkumet and
Howard L. Meredith, Ilasnmaz A Tiadstional Hastory of the Caddo Confederacy (College Station-
Texas A&M University Press, 1988), and Swanton, "Source Material on the History and Eth-
nology of the Caddo Indians."
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 95, July 1991 - April, 1992, periodical, 1992; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117153/m1/224/: accessed January 19, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.