The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 95, July 1991 - April, 1992 Page: 206
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Southwestern Hzstorzcal Quarterly
desolate northern provinces.' The earliest Tlaxcalans of San Miguel
helped to establish a Franciscan mission adjacent to their own commu-
nity by inducing several bands of local Chichimecos, the Alazapas, to
settle what later became the pueblo of San Antonio Valenzuela. Soon
after the founding of San Miguel, several of its pioneer settlers also
took part in a silver find nearby and thereafter became moderately suc-
cessful mine operators. Their discovery led to the establishment, in
169o, of the mainly Euro-Mexican mining camp of San Pedro Boca de
Leones, the later Villaldama, which depended from the first upon San
Miguel and San Antonio for much of its food, fiber, and labor force.'
Contemporaneously, Tlaxcalans were instrumental in the foundation
of two additional settlements, established in part as Chichimeco mis-
sions, within the Valle de Santiago. These were San Bernardino de la
Candela, located just inside the neighboring province of Coahuila, and
the outpost usually known as Punta de Lampazos, at the far northern
end of the valley and of Nuevo Le6n.' Each of the valley's communities
thus owed its origins, in some measure, to San Miguel de Bustamante.
Like their ancestors, the Tlaxcalans of San Miguel were expected pri-
marily to be farmers or stockmen but also, whenever necessary, to act as
part-time soldiers, reinforcing the dispersed clusters of Euro-Mexicans,
Mestizos, and others who made up most of the non-Chichimeco popu-
lation of remote Nuevo Le6n. In fact, Tlaxcalans, as well as Tarascans,
Otomies, and other Indian migrants from central Mexico played a vital
role, one still not comprehensively studied, in the defense of the Mexi-
can borderlands against Native American adversaries, "indios birba-
2For the best general account of the Chichimeco pacification of the 1500oos and the role of
Tlaxcalan colonists in the process, see Philip Wayne Powell, Soldiers, Indians, and Silver The
Northwaid Advance of New Spain, 1550- r6oo (Bel keley and Los Angeles: University of Califor-
nla Press, 1952). Shorter accounts include Marc Simmons, "'I'lascalans in the Spanish Border-
lands, New Mexuo Ilhtoual Review, XXXIX (Apr., 1964), 1()1-11o, and Charles Gibson, Tlax-
cala in the Sixteenth Centryv (New Haven Yale University Press, 1952), 181-189 The most
thorough treatment of I'laxcalan colonization in Coahulla is still Vito Alesslo Robles's vener-
able Coahudla y Texas en la epoca (olonial (Mexico City. Editorial Cultua, 1938) Israel Cavazos
Garza has contributed numerous articles on colonial Nuevo Le6n, several of which pertain to
the 'laxcalan role in that region See, for example, "La obra franciscana en Nuevo Le6n," Hlu-
mantas, II (1961), 437-452 See also Phmno I). Ord6fiez, "Las misiones franciscanas del Nuevo
Remo de Le6n (1575-1715)," Ifitona meriacana, III (Juho-agosto, 1953), 102-112, and David
B Adams, " the 'I laxcalan Colonies of Spanish Coahulla and Nuevo Le6n" An Aspect of the
Settlement of Northern Mexico" (Ph.D dlss , University of Texas at Austin, 1971).
'"Brebe Relacion . de la entrada del R Pe fr franco esteves, con el R Pe franco Hidalgo, en
orden a la fundaclon de la mlsion de Santa Maria de Dolores. . ,"Jan. 20, 1709, AGI-Aiidien-
cia de Mexico, 62-2-29, Dunn T'ranscripts, vol 77, exp. 1, pp. 4-8 (Eugene C Barker Texas
History Center, University of Texas, Austin), AMV/DJC, vol. io, exp. 21 (reel 670), fs. 2-12.
See also Isidro Vizcaya Canales (ed ), La invasz6n de los indio bdrbaros al noreste de Mexico en los
aitos de 84o y 841 (Monterrey: Instituto 'ITecnol6gico y de Estudios Superiores, 1968), 89 n. 9
'Ord6fiez, "Las mlsiones franciscanas," io8- 109o9; Eugenio del Hoyo, lustorma del Nuevo Reno
de Le6n, 1577-1723 (2 vols.; Monterrey: Instituto Tecnol6gico y de Estudios Superiores, 1972),
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 95, July 1991 - April, 1992, periodical, 1992; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117153/m1/252/: accessed April 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.