The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 95, July 1991 - April, 1992 Page: 272

Southwestern Hzstorzcal Quarterly

servicement who fought against the Japanese in World War II (War without
Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War [New York: Pantheon, 1986]).
Some of Smith's most interesting discussion comes in the particularly good
chapter on army attitudes toward Indian women, who too often were stereo-
typed into "Indian princesses" or "dirty squaws." Army wives considered the
lives of Indian women and used these considerations to reflect on Ameri-
can "women's proper role in society" (p. 58). Most officers' wives made it clear
that they "considered themselves the social and racial superiors of Indian
women" (p. 75).
Smith offers several other worthwhile points of analysis. While many officers
saw the necessity of prosecuting war against the western tribes, the author con-
tends that the army commanders certainly did not favor a policy of extermina-
tion. Many "officers viewed themselves as both conquerors and protectors"
(p. 8)-and they guarded Indian reservations as well as western settlers. Smith
concludes her study with a valuable chapter on army attitudes toward Indian
scouts. Many "officers frequently admitted that these scouts were invaluable to
the war effort" (p. 164), but basically distrusted them.
Historians and students of the American West will benefit from reading and
studying Smith's book.
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hzdalgo. A Legacy of Conflict. By Richard Griswold del
Castillo. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1990. Pp. xv+251. Pref-
ace, maps, illustrations, conclusion, appendices, notes, bibliography, in-
dex. $22.95.)
Richard Griswold del Castillo's stated purpose is "to provide an overview that
can make more understandable some of the complex historical and legal issues
surrounding U.S.-Mexican relations and ... evaluate the way that the treaty
has Influenced the domestic history of the United States" (p. xiii). He accom-
plished his purpose.
Four chapters set the political and diplomatic background in both nations
that influenced the treaty negotiations and its effect on the specific articles in-
corporated into the treaty. There is no intention to reexamine the Mexican war
or the treaty, but having established an understanding of the circumstances,
particularly in the context of the effects the treaty would have on Mexican citi-
zens who remained north of the new border, the author proceeds to discuss
that impact over time and space.
Information was drawn from a detailed study of federal and state court cases
in order to show how the treaty has been interpreted by the judiciary. This in-
formation is quite interesting because not only did interpretations of the treaty
by federal courts change over time, but there are some differences between the
several states from California to Texas.
Subsequent chapters discuss such topics and issues as U.S. interpretations of
citizenship and the property rights of Mexicans who remained north of' the
border, and there is a good historiographic discussion of Mexican and U.S. in-


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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 95, July 1991 - April, 1992, periodical, 1992; Austin, Texas. ( accessed April 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History,; crediting Texas State Historical Association.