The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 22, July 1918 - April, 1919 Page: 34
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The Southwestern Historical Quarterly
until the last moment.63 But neither were the Manilefios without
guilt. The trampas de la China, or "Chinese frauds," by which
they strove to defeat the purpose of the permiso restriction, and
to introduce their excess lading into New Spain without paying
either duty to the Crown or composition money to the Crown's
officials, certainly gave them little ground for complaining of the
tricks and frauds of their rivals or of the officials who connived
at the sharp practices of these rivals, and in fact emulated them
by their own conduct.64 Or again, it might be the smaller Amer-
ican buyers who suffered, when the more powerful merchants ar-
ranged with the Philippine committee to take over the larger part,
or all, of the cargo. Sometimes the latter bought the mass of
the cargo before the galleon had reached Acapulco, by sending
out an agent to the ship as she proceeded down the northwest
coast. Finally, these Mexican and Peruvian traders merely
claimed consignments made to them by their agent in the islands
under a fictitious entry in the galleon's register. Thus, the fair,
which was designed to proceed with "all formality and quietude,"6-
was only too often a, hurly-burly of questionable dealings and vio-
lent contentions, mitigated only by the restraint of Spanish
hidalguia and the occasional vigilance of loyal officials.
All sales made in the ordinary course of the fair had to be
registered in detail at the contaduria. These certificates of sale
not only served as basis for the issuing of the licenses which had
to accompany every consignment destined for the interior, but
such records were essential in computing the aggregate returns of
silver to Manila. All the, silver which entered Acapulco was,
moreover, required to be accompanied by a license issued at the
place from which it had come. In fact, so great was the anxiety
of the official regulations to keep the trade within bounds that
scarcely a peso was permitted to circulate about Acapulco without
being registered somewhere. No buyer was allowed to remove his
purchases from Acapulco until the fair was officially proclaimed
to be closed, nor could one of the Manilefios anticipate the arrival
63Juan Quixano, Procurador-general of the Philippines, to the King,
1679, A. de I., 67-6-28.
"Hiumboldt, op. cit., p. 73.
"Adiciones, op. cit.
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Texas State Historical Association. The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Volume 22, July 1918 - April, 1919, periodical, 1919; Austin, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117156/m1/42/: accessed May 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.