Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide 1931 Page: 63
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THE TEXAS ALMANAC--1931. 63
to the office of President shall be eligible to that
of Vice President of the United States. (Sept. 28,
Sec. 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude,
except as a punishment for crime, whereof the
party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist
within the United States or any place subject to
Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation. (Dec. 18, 1865.)
See. 1. All persons born or naturalized in the
United States, and subject to the jurisdiction there-.
of, are citizens of the United States and of the
State wherein they reside. No State shall make or
enforce any law Which shall abridge the privileges
or immunities of citizens of the United States. Nor
shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty.
or property without due process of law, nor deny
to any person withinits jularisdiction the eqal pro-
tectlon of-the laws.
Sec. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned
among the several States according to their respec-
tive numbers, counting the whole number of persons
in each State excluding Indians not taxed. But
when the right to vote at any election for the
ofhoice of electors for President and Vice President
of the United States, Representatives in Congress,
exeCutive and judicial officers of a State. or the
members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any
of the male inhabitants of such State, being 21
f ears of age, and citizens of the United States, or
nany way abridged, except for participation in
rebellion or other crime, the basis of represents.
tion therein shall be reduced in the proportion which
the number of male citizens shall bear to the whole
number of male citizens 21 years of age in such
See. 3. No person shall be a Senator or Represent-
ative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice
President, or hold any office, civil or military,
under the United States, or under any State, who,
having previously taken an oath as a member of
Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or
as a member of any State Legislature, or as an ex-
ecutive or judicial officer of any State, to support
the Constitution of the United States, shall have
engaged in insurreetion or rebellion against the
same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies there-
of, but Congress may. by a vote of two-thirds of
each house, remove sUgh disability.
See. 4. The validity of the public debt of the
United States, authorized by law, including debts
Incurred for the payment of pensions and bounties
for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion.
shall not be questioned: but neither the United
States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt
or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or re-
hellion against the United States, or any claim for
the loss or emancipation of any slave: but all such
debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal
Sgc. 5. The Congress shall have the power to
enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions
of this article. (Jan. 28, 1888.)
- Article XV.
Sec. 1. The right of citizens of thle 'United States
to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the
United States or by any State on account of race,
color, or previous condition of servitude.
Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation. (March 80,
The Congress shall. have power to lay and collect
taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived,
without apportionment among the several States.
and without regard to any census or enumeration.
(Feb. 25. 1913.)
1. The Senate of the United States shall be com-
posed of two Senators from each State, elected by
the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator
shall have one vote. The electors in each State
shall have the qualifications requisite for electors
of the most numerous branch of the State Legisla-
2. When vacancies happen in the representation
iof any State In the Senate. the executive authority
of suech State shall isbue writs of election to fill
such vacancies; provided, that the Legislature of
any State may empower the executive therewt to
make temporary appointment until the people fill
the vacancies by election as the Legislature may
3. This amendment shall not be so construed as
to affect the election or term of any Senator chose
before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution
(May 13, 1913.)
Sec. 1. After one year from the ratification or
this article the manufacture, sale, or transportahtio
of intoxicating liquors within, the importaton
thereof into, or the exportation thereof from th-
United States and all territory subject to the juris-
diction thereof for beverage purpose is hereby pro-
Sec. 2. The Congress and the several States shall
have concurrent power to enforce this article-'b
See. 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it
shall have been, ratified as an amendment to the
Constitution by the Legislatures of the several-
States, as provided in the Constitution. within seve-
years from the date of the submission hereof to the
States by the" Congres. (Jan. 16, 1919.)
The right of citizens of the United States to votn
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States
or by any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce this artie
by appropriate legislation. (Aug. 26, 1920.)
PRESENT AND PAST STATE CONSTITUTIONS
The present Constitution of the State of Texa-
was written by a convention which convened at
Austin, Texas, Sept. 8, 1875, and adjourned iov
4, 1875, and was ratified by the people Feb. 15.
1876. It was declared adopted by a proclamation
of the Governor which was dated March 4, 1876, and
effective April 18, 1876. Thus the present Constitu-
tion is sometimes referred to as "the Constitution
of 1876." It has been the fundamental governing
document of this Commonwealth fifty-five year.
during which time fifty amendments have been
First constitutional government in Texas was
under the Mexican -Constitution of 1824. After
Texas and Coahuila were combined as one State
under the Mexican Government a State Constitu-
tion was adopted. Its publication date was March
11, 1827. The first Constitution actually written by
representatives of the State of Texas was that
drawn up and adopted at the convention of colonists
at 8an Felipe, April 1 to 13, 1833, which also peti-
tioned the Mexican Government for separate state-
hood for Texas. 'he petition was denied and the
Constitution was not recognized.-
Constitution of the Republic.
Independence was declared March 2, 1836, and a
national Constitution written, adopted and signed
March 17, 18386. It was ratified by the people Sept
Early State Constitutions.
Th first State Constitution after annexation was
written in convention between July 4 and Aug, 7.
1845. ratified by the people Oct. 10, 1845. and ap-
proved by the Congress of the United States and
President Polk Dec. 29, 1845.
When Texas seceded from the United States, the
Constitution of 1840 was subjected to general
amendment by a convention which convened at Aus-
tin, March 2, and adjourned March 25, 1861. This
is known as the Constitution of 1861 and it served
Texas while it was a Commonwealth in the Con6(t.
erate States of America. After the surrender of the
Confederate armies, a convention met at Austfn
Feb. 7, 1866, and remained in session during March
and part of April, writing a Constitution which wasee
to some extent another adaptation of the Constitu-
tion of 1845. It was ratified by the people in June.
1888, but it was voided by the United States Gov.
eminent, which placed the State under strict mili-
tary rule. At the end of two years another coneti-
tutional convention was convened at Austin, June
L 1888. The convention represented the "radical"
element that was sympathetic to the North durin-
the Civil War. acid was nuder military domination,
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Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide 1931, book, 1931; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117160/m1/65/: accessed May 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.