Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide 1936 Page: 189
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RIVER BASINS-WATER PROJECTS-SPRINGS. 189
and furnish water for irrigation and flood
Another is the South Llano project, on
the South Llano in Kimble County, which
would impound 100,000 acre-feet and have
a surface area of 2,500 acres, being also for
the purpose of irrigation and flood con-
The third project would be the McKin-
ney Falls dam on Onion Creek in Travis
County, which would impound 46,875 acre-
feet and have a surface area of 2,875 acres,
being intended for irrigation and flood
Present storage capacity of reservoirs
of any considerable size in the Colorado
watershed is 135,500 acre-feet. The com-
pletion of the Colorado River Authority
projects, construction of the Bronte dam,
and the other tentative projects mentioned
above would add 3,881,665 acre-feet, mak-
ing a total of 4,017,165 acre-feet, which
would be made available, including the
capacity of present projects.
EDWARDS PLATEAU STREAMS.
Southwest of the Colorado basin lies a
group of streams differing entirely in
character and potentialities from the riv-
ers considered in the foregoing para-
graphs. Texas river basins may be di-
vided roughly into three classes with re-
spect to physical characteristics and prob-
lems. First, there are the East Texas
streams, lying entirely in the coastal belt,
in a forested area of abundant rainfall
throughout the course of the stream.
These are the Sabine, Neches, San Jacinto
and the Sulphur, the latter being a tribu-
tary of the Red. They are given consid-
eration above. The next classification con-
sists of those rivers having their upper
basins in the plains and rolling prairies,
with relatively rapid descent of channel
until the costal prairie is reached, where
the character of a meandering stream is
assumed. In this group are the Trinity,
the Brazos and the Colorado, although the
Trinity has not a great deal of its basin in
the uplands and throughout much of its
course has the character of the Sabine and
Neches. In this second group comes also
the Rio Grande, but it has peculiar prob-
lems of its own to put it in a separate
class. It is given consideration below. A
distinct third classification of streams is
the group having headwaters in the great
springs of the Edwards Plateau. These
are characterized by relative smallness of
drainage area, brevity of channel course.
but relative large and constant flow.
In the Edwards limestone and other
water-absorbing strata underneath the
Edwards Plateau is one of the greatest
natural water reservoirs in the United
States. Along the Balcones Escarpment at
the eastern and southern edges of the Ed-
wards Plateau where the limestone stra-
tum has been ruptured artesian springs
rise to the surface through the fissures of
the fault line. On the surface of the pla-
teau where erosion has cut into the lime-
stone there are numerous gravity streams,
some of which are large.
Large Texas Springs.
The principal springs along the Bal-
cones Escarpment are the Barton Springs
near Austin, the San Marcos Springs at the
head of the San Marcos River at San Mar-
cos, the Comal Spritgs at the head of the
Comal near New Braunfels, the San An-
tonio and San Pedro Springs in San An-
tonio. the Las Moras Springs near Brack-
ettville, the San Felipe Springs near Del
Rio and the Goodenough Springs near
Comstock in Val Verde County. Among the
gravity springs of the deeply eroded can-
yons and valleys of the plateau there are
few of large size, but there is a large
number and the total flow of water from
them is great. The Pecan Springs on the
Devil's River and the Seven Hundred
Springs at the headwaters of the South
Llano are the largest in this classification.
In a somewhat different classification are
the springs of the westward extension of
the Edwards Plateau across the Pecos. Of
these the Comanche Springs at Fort Stock-
ton and the San Solomon Springs near
Balmorhea are the largest.
LARGE SPRINGS IN TEXAS.
Barton Springs at Austin.
Minimum flow 12.1 second-feet, or 7,820,000 gal-
Maximum flow 139 second-feet, or 89,800.000 gal-
Average flow 41.3 second-feet, or 26.700.000 gal-
San Marcos Springs at San Maros.
Minimum flow 51 second-feet. or 33.000.000 gal-
Maximum flow 286 second-feet, or 185.000 000 gal-
Average flow 153 second-feet, or 98,900.000 gal-
Comal Springs at New Braunfels.
Minimum flow 250 second-feet, or 162.000.000 gal-
Maximum flow 350 second-feet, or 226.000,000 gal-
Average flow 304 second-feet, or 196.000.000 gal-
Las Moras Springs, Near Brackettville.
Minimum flow 5.79 second-feet, or 3.740.000 gal-
Maximum flow 60 second-feet, or 38.800.000 gal-
Average flow 21.9 second-feet, or 14.200.000 gal-
San Felipeh Springs at Del Rio.
Minimum flow 40.6 second-feet, or 26.200.000 gal-
Maximum flow 150 second-feet, or 97.000.00 gal-
Average flow 76.2 second-feet, or 49.200.000 gal-
Goodenough Springs. Near Comstock.
Minimum flow 96 second-feet, or 62,000.000 gal-
Maximum flow about 700 second-feet, or 452.000.-
000 gallons daily.
Average flow 179 second-feet, or 116,000.000 gal-
Comanche Springs at Fort Stockton.
Minimum flow 40.9 second-feet, or 26.400.000 gal-
Maximum flow 66 second-feet, or 42,700,000 gal-
Average flow 47.4 second-feet, or 30,600.000 gal-
San Solomon Springs, Near Toyahvale.
Minimum flow 30 second-feet, or 19,400,000 gal-
Maximum flow 70 second-feet, or 45,200.000 gal-
Average flow 38.6 second-feet, or 24.900.000 gal-
The Colorado on the north of this re-
gion and the Rio Grande on the south re-
ceive some of this flow of spring water
and, especially in dry periods, assume
something of the character of the spring
streams. The minimum flow in both of
these larger rivers would be much less
were it not for the contributions of their
The largest river that may be said to be-
long primarily -to thb spring-fed group is
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Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide 1936, book, 1936; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117161/m1/191/: accessed March 29, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.