Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide 1936 Page: 93
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OUTLINE OF TEXAS HISTORY.
ing abandoned. (See index for chapter
Runnels was defeated in the elections
of 1859 by Sam Houston. Houston and
Thomas J. Rusk had been named the first
United States Senators in 1846. Houston,
after re-election to a second term, left
is seat in March, 1859. He had in the
meantime run against Runnels for Gov-
ernor in 1857, but lost. In his victory in
1859, Houston was aided materially by
support of the Know-Nothing party. This
party, which opposed foreign immigration
and had as its slogan, "America for the
Americans," gained considerable strength
in the United States and in Texas imme-
diately prior to the Civil War.
Beginning Dec. 21, 1859, Houston served
until March 16, 1861, when his office was
declared vacant by the State government
following secession and reorganization
under the Confederacy. Houston was de-
posed because he refused to take the new
oath of allegiance; like many other
Southerners of his day, Houston was a
Unionist. Texas had seceded by action of
the secession convention Jan. 28, 1861,
and ratification by the people Feb. 23.
Houston's last official service to Texas
was beset by trouble including the in-
roads of Cortinas on the border and grow-
ing boldness of the Indians on the west.
(See index for article on "Rangers.")
When Houston was deposed, Edward
Clarke, who had served as Lieutenant
Governor, was sworn in and served
through the remainder of 1861 (March
16, 1861, to Nov. 7, 1861), supervising
military organization of the State under
the Confederacy. Clarke stood for re-
election, but was defeated by a narrow
margin by Frank R. Lubbock.
VIII. TEXAS UNDER THE STARS AND
Lubbock's administration (Nov. 7, 1861,
to Nov. 5, 1863) witnessed most of Texas'
part in the Civil War. The expedition
of General Sibley into New Mexico in
the attempt to hold that State for the
Confederacy met initial success but final-
ly failed before superior numbers and
natural difficulties. The coast of Texas
had been blockaded almost from the be-
ginning of the war and on Oct. 4, 1862,
Galveston was captured. Confederate
forces under General Magruder recap-
tured Galveston on Jan. 1, 1863. Texas
forces also distinguished themselves at
the battle of Sabine Pass, where Capt.
Richard Dowling, with a small force, se-
verely repulsed a United States naval
force on Sept. 8, 1863. Houston died at
Huntsville, July 26, 1863.
The last Governor of Texas under the
Confederacy was Pendleton Murrah, who
served from Nov. 5, 1863, to June 17, 1865,
fleeing to Mexico with the fall of the
Confederacy. General E. Kirby Smith,
commanding the department which in-
cluded Texas, surrendered May 30, 1865,
following Lee's surrender April 9. On
May 30, the last shot of the Civil War
was fired at the Battle of Brazos Santiago
near Brownsville, where Confederate
forces under Gen. J. E. Slaughter repulsed
an attack by United States forces on
Brownsville. When Governor Murrah left
for Mexico, June 17, Lieut. Gov. Fletcher
S. Stoekdale became Governor, but Gen-
eral Granger of the United States Army
had been placed in command of Texas and
A. J. Hamilton was appointed Governor
by President Andrew Johnson.
IX. THE PERIOD OF
Governor Hamilton served from July 17,
1865, to Aug . 9, 1866. A reconstruction
convention, to which unionist citizens se-
lected delegates, met in Austin Feb. 10,
1866, and declared acts of the secession
convention void. A Constitution was
adopted harmonizing with the Federal
Constitution and an election ordered in
July, at which J. W. Throckmorton was
Governor Throckmorton served from
Aug. 9, 1866, to Aug. 8, 1867. After much
conflict in the National Congress, how-
ever, Texas, with the remainder of the
South, was placed under military rule.
Gen. Phil Sheridan was put in command
of the district, including Texas. Throck-
morton and Sheridan could not agree in
policy and the Governor was removed.
Elisha M. Pease, who had served as Gov-
ernor from 1854 to 1857, inclusive, was ap-
pointdd. Governor Pease served from
Aug. 8, 1867, until Sept. 30, 1869, a period
of great confusion. A constitutional con-
vention was convened in Austin June 1,
1868, but after much bitter wrangling re-
cessed, meeting again in December and
in February, 1869. The convention, which
had consisted only of "radical" or ex-
treme unionist citizens, and had been con-
stantly under military domination, did
not finish its work. The document was
finished by the Secretary of State under
military orders a and adopted by popular
ballot (of those then having the privilege)
on Nov. 30, 1869. Governor Pease, a un-
ionist but staunch Texas patriot became
discouraged and resigned Sept. 30. For
several months there was an interregnum
without a head of the Texas civil gov-
ernment. In the November election, at
which the Constitution was ratified, Ed-
mund J. Davis was elected Governor.
The campaign of 1869 was attended by
much bitterness in politics. The Union
Leagues had sprung up in Texas during
the two preceding years, dominated by
"radical" whites, but maintaining po-
litical power locally and in the State gov-
ernment largely through the negro vote.
The secret, oath-bound Ku Klux Klan
sprang up in Texas, as in other States
of the South, and exerted an influence in
opposition to the Union Leagues until re-
moval of requirement of the "iron clad"
oath permitted the conservative political
element to regain control of the State.
The administration of Davis (Jan. 8,
1870, to Jan. 15, 1874) was unpopular,
Davis was elected before the provision
for the "iron clad" oath was removed
hence by an electorate that did not in-
clude ex-soldiers of the Confederate
armies. He was highhanded in his pol-
icies and the State police force which he
organized met with universal disapproval.
Included in constructive legislation of his
term, which was four years under the
Constitution of 1869, was that improving
the educational system of the State.
Having ratified the Thirteenth, Four-
teenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the
Federal Constitution, Texas was read-
mitted to the Union by act of Congress,
March 30, 1870. The "iron clad" oath was
removed and the radical or carpetbag ele-
ment lost control of the Legislature dur-
ing the second biennium of Davis' ad-
ministration. There was a general re-
vival of confidence. Immigration poured
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Texas Almanac and State Industrial Guide 1936, book, 1936; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117161/m1/95/: accessed June 26, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.