Texas Almanac, 1939-1940 Page: 38
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38 THE TEXAS ALMANAC-1939.
the vicinity of Ringgold in northwestern
Montague County to the Burnet-Llano
country on the south.
The terrain varies from rolling to
rough and there are some appreciable
eminences, notably the Palo Pinto
range. The elevation varies approxi-
mately from 800 to 1,700 feet above sea
level and, like the two belts to the east
of it, it is drained by short segments of
the several rivers which traverse it. The
rainfall averages about 30 inches and the
climate is mild, having a little lower
mean temperature than the Grand
The soils are of sandy texture as a
rule, with interspersed areas of chooo-
late loams and with alluvial valleys
along the principal streams. There is a
general growth of postoak and blackjack,
with cedars on the hill ranges. There
is also much mesquite on the heavier
soils. Mesquite is the principal grass
and there are many small prairie areas.
Cotton and corn are grown and there
is a considerable amount of melon,
peach and other truck production. The
principal peanut-producing region lies
m the central portion of this belt. There
is a large livestock industry. Cattle
raising leads, but in recent years a large
poultry-raising industry has been devel-
oped iM this belt.
Some of the largest oil fields of Texas
have been found in this region and a
large part of the state's production of oil
andrgas today is from it. A variety of
clays adaptable to making common, face,
vitrified and fire brick is found, and the
principal coal production of the state has
been from mines in this region, a few of
which still operate, although the abun-
dance of oil and gas now limits the mar-
ket for coal. Mineral waters at Mineral
Wells have a great commercial value.
The population is largely white, with
only a small percentage of Negroes. East-
land, Breckenridge, Cisco, Ranger, Min-
eral Wells and Brownwood are the prin-
cipal commercial centers lying in and on
the border of this belt.
Lower West Texas Prairies.
-This fourth subdivision of the North
Central Region lies between the West
Cross Timbers and the foot of the Great
Plains on the east and west, respective-
ly, and extends from the Red River on
the north approximately to the Colorado
on the south. It extends across the Red
River into western Oklahoma and there
is a fringe lying along the eastern part
of the Panhandle below the cap rock.
The surface is one of undulating plains
with relatively little timber, traversed by
the many mainm channels and tributaries
of the Colorado, Brazos, Trinity and Red
Rivers. The rainfall varies from about
30 to 20 inches and the climate varies
from mild to middle temperate. The ele-
vation ranges approximately from 1,000
to 3,000 feet. The breaks below the cap
rock approach the mountainous and
there are isolated eminences where an
extra thickness of cap rock has shielded
areas from erosion, forming ranges of
low, flat-topped mountains. An outstand-
ing physical feature is the Callahan Di-
vide, which lies between the watersheds
of the Colorado and the Brazos.
A variety of. soils is found. A large
body of red soils in the upper central
portion gives it the name of Redlands of
Northwest Texas. Sandy and sandy
loam soils prevail along the Red River.
In the middle and southern parts of this
belt the soils on the east are thin and
those on the west eroded, while between
extends a belt of fine agricultural lands,
which make leading cotton and feed-
producing counties of Jones, Taylor,
Runnels, Coleman and contiguous area.
Between this belt and the breaks at the
foot of the plains lies the narrow gyp-
sum belt running approximately from
Quanah to Sweetwater and from which
a large amount of plaster, sheetrock and
other building materials are produced
annually by four or five large quarrying
and manufacturing establishments.
Oil and gas are found also in a number
of places and there are fine clays for
brick making. Coal and copper are
found also, but none is mined in this
There is little timber excepting mes-
quite in the southern half of this region
and cedars on the hill ranges. There are
fine pecan groves along the streams in
the southern part. Excellent native
grasses, mesquite, grama and others, pro-
vide range for livestock.
As a whole the region is about equally
divided between crop growing and live-
stock raising. Staple crops are grown,
cotton leading, but there is a large pro-
duction of wheat in the northern section
and grain sorghums, oats and corn are
grown generally. There are some rela-
tively large bodies of land devoted to
ranching and there is much stock farm-
ing. Cattle raising is the principal live-
stock industry and some of the finest
beef cattle grown in the state come from
this territory. The extreme southern
portion dips into the sheep and goat
The population is very largely white.
Farmers are landowners as a rule, al-
though tenancy has increased rapidly in
recent years in the intensively cultivated
cotton region extending through the cen-
Potentiality for Development.
While the North Central Province can
no longer be considered one of the new-
er developing regions of Texas, except
on its western edge, its development
nevertheless is far from complete. The
great ranch has gone except in a few
areas, and the cotton, corn, grain sor-
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Texas Almanac, 1939-1940, book, 1939; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117163/m1/40/: accessed January 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.