Texas Almanac, 1939-1940 Page: 50
The following text was automatically extracted from the image on this page using optical character recognition software:
THE TEXAS ALMANAC-1939.
Distribution of the Indian tribes of Texas as they were during the early years of mis-
sionary effort in Texas beginning in 1690. A little later the Comanches thrust southward,
occupying the eastern territory of the Lipan Apaches. Still later the Osages came in from
the north and there was a migration into the state of Cherokees, Alabamas, Coushattas, Dela-
wares, Seminoles and others from the northeast and east.
fluence of the better established prehis-
toric southwestern groups."
The most productive archaeological
evidences probably have been the In-
dian mounds found in many points in
Northeast and East Texas, and on the
lower coastal plains. From these have
been taken, largely under the direction
of Professor Pearce, evidences of varied
and, in places, relatively advanced cul-
tures. Much of the life habits and migra-
tion of prehistoric man has been ascer-
tained by these means. From the kitchen
middens of a wide area in the central
portion of the state, and from the rock-
shelters in Southwest Texas, have been
taken similar evidences, indicating the
prehistoric cultures of this wide area.
Along the Canadian River and in the
breaks of the escarpment on the east
side of the Great Plains are found evi-
dences of the Pueblo culture of New
Mexico. Dim traces of dwellings having
more than 100 rooms have been discov-
ered, together with artifacts of turquoise
and fish bone, that indicate an eastward
extension of the more western cultures,
or at least their influences.
In the caves of the Big Bend region in
the Guadalupe, Davis, Hueco, Chisos and
other mountain ranges are evidences of
a culture related to the Basket-Maker or
Pueblo culture of New Mexico. As in the
instance of the Panhandle culture, ar-
chaeologists are disagreed as to whether
it is an extension of Pueblo and Basket-
Maker culture, or whether it is a differ-
ent culture showing the influence of the
New Mexico tribes.
As a result of these archaeological
findings and research of historians
among the manuscript of early explor-
ers, a fairly definite idea of the distri-
bution of the Indian population at ap-
proximately the time of the founding of
the first missions has been attained.
The Great Caddo Family.
The largest group of Indians living in
Texas during the dates, 1690 to 1730, was
that of the Caddo tribes who dwelt in a
crescent shaped area extending from the
southern extremity of the pine belt in
East Texas, northward up the Trinity,
Neches and Sabine Valleys to the Red
River and thence westward along the
Red River to the present Texas Pan-
handle. This great Indian family of
Caddo stock seemingly was broken into
three major subclassifications: (1) the
Hasinai Confederacy in the lower half of
the Texas Pine Belt and extending across
the Sabine into Louisiana; (2) the Caddo
proper group living in Northeast Texas
and adjacent sections of Arkansas, Louis-
iana and Oklahoma, and (3) the Wichita
group dwelling in the Upper Red River
Here’s what’s next.
This book can be searched. Note: Results may vary based on the legibility of text within the document.
Citing and Sharing
Basic information for referencing this web page. We also provide extended guidance on usage rights, references, copying or embedding.
Reference the current page of this Book.
Texas Almanac, 1939-1940, book, 1939; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117163/m1/52/: accessed June 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.