Texas Almanac, 1939-1940 Page: 51
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HISTORY OF TEXAS
Valley and on the headwaters of the proper,
The Hasinai Confederacy included the tribes a
Nacodoche, Nasoni, Neche, Heinai, Nado- the Cad
co and other tribal subclassifications. undoubt
They were rather far advanced cultur- that of
ally, living in permanent homes and cul- its were
tivating the soil. It was among these
Indians that the first Texas mission in Along
the east, San Francisco de los Tejas, was to the
founded, and it was from these Indians tribes, d
that the word Tejas, apparently meaning sustainir
"friendship," and used as a watchword cultural
among the members of this confederacy, that of
was derived. Sometimes the Hasinai were
Confederacy is referred to as the Tejas ranges
group, though strictly speaking this is not mai
not correct. of them
To the north and northeast of the of canni
Hasinai Confederacy was the region of Farth
the tribal groups usually referred to as capas, d
the Caddoes proper, including the Grand for a si
Caddoes, Little Caddoes, Nachitoches, of this
Adaes, Natsoos and other tribes. Like the to the
related Caddoes to the south they dwelt Deadose
in permanent abodes, tilled the soil and prairies
maintained a rather high cultural state. fringes
Early explorers said that there was little ity Val]
variation among the dialects of the two Trinity
The third Caddo group consisted of the area lyi
Wichita Confederacy, whose grounds ap- the soul
parently lay along both sides of the Red on the
River, from the approximate location of Didais.
present Grayson County to the east line ing ar
of the Panhandle, extending southward Island t
into the upper valley of the Trinity. Sub- Karankr
classifications included the Wichitas panes,
:'44 4 I
h ts ::":~: ji- I:- i
-Anthropology Museum of University of Texas.
The relatively high cultural status of the Caddoes is indicated by this reproduction
of a drawing of a typical village of that tribe by an officer of the United States Army about
1841. These homes were of slender poles and wattle work of tough grass, stuffed with mud.
Notice also the well kept fields of corn and other crops. Compare with Comanche village
shown on page 53.
Taovayos, Tawakanis (or Tahua-
the Yscanis and others. These
re now accepted as a branch of
do stock, although their dialects
edly varied considerably from
the lower groups, and their hab-
Tribes of the Gulf Coast.
the Gulf Coast, from the Sabine
Rio Grande, lay the grounds of
described by Professor Pearce as
ng a sea food economy. Their
status was considerably below
the Caddoes. Apparently, they
seminomadic, although their
were rather limited, and they did
ntain permanent shelters. Most
m have left undeniable evidence
balism in varying degree.
est to the east were the Atta-
welling around Sabine Lake and
short distance along the channel
river to the north. Immediately
east lay the Arkokisas and the
es, dwelling on the coastal
of the Gulf and on the southern
of the Big Thicket. In the Trin-
ley, and immediately north of
Bay, these three tribal groups,
related, occupied the narrow
ng between the Gulf Coast on
th and the Hasinai Confederacy
north. To the west were the
Still farther westward, extend-
pproximately from Galveston
o San Antonio Bay, were the
awas, including the Cujanes, Co-
Coapites, Cocos, Carancaguases
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Texas Almanac, 1939-1940, book, 1939; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117163/m1/53/: accessed June 23, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.