Texas Almanac, 1939-1940 Page: 57
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HISTORY OF TEXAS.
effort were in the extreme west. Ac- City to
cording to most dependable historic rec- Viceroy.
ords, the oldest missions in Texas were tion was
San Antonio de los Tiguas, 1682, later send an
known as Nuestra Senora del Carmen, lish missi
and San Miguel del Socorro, 1682, in fer of St.
present El Paso County a short distance expedition
southeast of El Paso. These missions outcome
were established in connection with the salesmans
settlement of Ysleta del Sur and Socorro bined wit]
del Sur, mentioned previously as the the cousin
oldest communities in Texas. San Juan
Several missions including Julimes and the reside
San Cristobal were established in what is the minds
now Presidio County near the junction of An exp'
the Rio Grande and Rio Conchos about Capt. Do
1683. Recent research by Dr. Carlos E. from San
Castaneda of the University of Texas has East Texa
revealed much additional information route of
about the mission activity in this inter- came to 1
esting locality, which must be listed as (King's t
one of the historic landmarks of Texas. familiar t
The location of the little city of Presidio, tonio Roa
opposite the mouth of the Rio Conchos Bautista
on the Rio Grande, was undoubtedly the through S
iite of an Indian village for hundreds of eastward.
years before the coming of white man. As a re,
Situated in a cultivable valley beside a the Spani
perennially flowing stream, at a natural east 'by th
passageway across the Rio Grende it mission w
was a logical center for human habita- Sour
tion in prehistoric times. While t
Other West Texas missions were ment on i
established as offshoots of missionary ment aut
effort in the Upper Rio Grande Valley, missionar
the farthest east being that of San Cle. have been
mente, 1683, located probably near the. years of
junction of the Colorado and Concho was due
Rivers in Runnels or Concho County. Father F
Re-establishment of East Texas Missions. Maria of
There were two motivating forces be- From the
hind the early missionary work in east- quest of
ern Texas--zeal of the church fathers to ary work
convert the' Indians and the desire of die of the
the civil and military authorities to pro- one and c
tect Spanish dominion in Texas from landing ot
French aggression. The pleas of the been don
Franciscan fathers usually went unheed- Indians in
ed until the temporal powers became were amo
suspicious of French design in the terri- many who
tory between the Red and the Rio strait an
Grande. tonio conc
After subsidence of Spanish alarm over college es
the founding of Fort Samint Louis and the missionari
abandonment of the early East Texas Santa Cr
missions, the government in Mexico City 1683, that
had little occasion to worry (bout their Texas can
Trans-Rio Grande possessions until 1714, lished the
when they were jolted by the sudden ap- Antonio d4
pearance of the French explorer and Capistrano
trader, Louis Juchereau de Saint Denis, College of
at San Juan Bautista on the Rio Grande de Zacatec
opposite present-day Eagle Pass. The Queretaro
Frenchman, who had traversed Texas several mi
without attracting the attention of Jose and
Spanish authorities, protested innocence
of any design other than establishing a The exp
friendly line of commerce with the accompany
French in Louisiana. However, he was go, who, w
placed under arrest and sent to Mexico untiring, ir
explain his intentions to the
The result of the conversa-
the decision of the Viceroy to
expedition into Texas to estab-
ons and settlements The of-
Denis to act as guide for the
I was accepted. This interesting
was probably partly due to the
ship of the French trader (com-
h the fact that he had married
n of Capt. Domingo Ramon at
Bautista), and partly due to.
ue of distrust still lingering in
of the Spanish authorities.
edition under the command of
mingo Ramon was sent out
Juan Bautista. It went into
as, establishing the first definite
travel in this state. Later it
be known as the Camrino Real
Highway) and still later was
o Texans as the Old: San An-
d. It extended from San Juan
(near present Eagle Pass)
San Antonio to Nacog oches and
sult of renewed anxiety among
sh over infiltration from the
Le French, a second attempt at
ork in East Texas wa- made.
ce of Mission Movement.
the fear of French encroach-
the part of Spanish Govern-
horities opened the way for
r effort, the latter would not
possible had there not been
preparation. This preparation
primarily to the efforts of
ray Antonio Linaz de Jesus.
the Order of Saint Francis.
beginning of the Spanish con-
Mexico there had been mission-
by the church but at the mid-
Seventeenth Century, nearly
one half centuries after the
f Cortes, relatively little had
e towards conversion of the
the outlying region and there
ng the Spaniards themselves
had wandered away from the
d narrow path. Father An-
ceived the idea of founding a
specially for the training of
es. It was from the College of
uz de Queretaro, founded in
most of the missionaries to.
se, including those who estab-
San Antomo missions of San
e Valero (Alamo), Concepcion,
and Espada. However, the
Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe
cas, founded three years after
for similar purposes, also had
ssions in Texas, including San
East Texas Missions.
edition of Captain Ramon was
ed by Father Francisco Hidal-
ith Father Massanet, had been
his efforts to have missions
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Texas Almanac, 1939-1940, book, 1939; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117163/m1/59/: accessed November 18, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.