Texas Almanac, 1939-1940 Page: 63
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HISTORY OF TEXAS.
however, by even more definite measures
to stop American immigration into
Provisions of Law of 1830.
In April, 1830, the Mexican Congress
enacted a law forbidding further settle-
ment of Americans in Texas excepting
in two colonies, providing for establish-
ment of Mexican convict colonies in
Texas, and levying duties on all foreign
imports and establishing customs houses.
By this legislation it was hoped to lessen
the growth of American population, ac-
celerate that of Mexican population and
break up the growing commerce with the
United States, forcing commercial rela-
tions with Mexico.
It was this act that brought the first
storm of protest and fed underlying
causes of the Texas Revolution, of which
there were several. Neither the Na-
tional Constitution of 1824 nor the Con-
stitution of the State of Coahuila-Texas
of 1827 granted certain rights accepted as
inalienable by the Anglo-Americans, no-
tably trial by jury and the right of bail.
Furthermore, a state religion was not to
their liking and particularly obnoxious
was the requirement that settlers in the
colonies be Catholics. Most of the Amer-
ican settlers were Protestants, and they
-did not comply with the regulation in
good faith or evaded it entirely.
Trouble at Anahuac.
Afformer American who had become a
Mexican army officer, Col. John D.
Bradburn, in command of the customs
house at Anahuac, aroused the resent-
ment of surrounding colonists by inter-
fering with their plans for obtaining le-
gal titles to land that they had acquired
as squatters. Further, he arrested, ap-
parently without good cause, several col-
onists, including William Barrett Travis.
A small force of Americans gathered and
attacked the town. Bradburn promised
to release the prisoners and the attacking
force retired momentarily.
Turtle Bayou Resolutions.
Bradburn failed to release the prison-
ers, but the attackers decided to await
reinforcements. In the meantime, in
their camp on Turtle Bayou, they passed
resolutions declaring their attempt not
a revolt against Mexico, but an expedi-
tion on behalf of Gen. Lopez de Santa
Anna, who was leading a revolution
against President Bustamente. Santa
Anna was then posing as a liberal in op-
position to the dictatorial methods of
Bustamente. Before the attack on Ana-
huac could be resumed, Colonel Piedras
arrived with a force from Nacogdoches
and released the American prisoners.
Battle of Velasco.
Although only a few shots were fired
at Anahuac, the conflict precipitated the
first actual engagement of the growing
Texas-Mexican controversy. A detach-
ment bringing two cannon from Brazo-
ria to camp at Turtle Creek, via the
Brazos, was refused passage by the
Mexican commander at Velasco at the
mouth of the Brazos. After a three-day
battle the Texans were victorious, cap-
turing Col. Domingo Ugartechea and his
Following this conflict, Texas took ap-
preciable part in the revolt of Santa Anna
against Bustamente. Government gar-
risons at Nacogdoches, San Antonio and
other points were forced out or made to
First San Felipe Convention.
The coming of Santa Anna into promi-
nence as a liberal and friend of the peo-
pile led the Texas colonists to ask for re-
forms. A convention was held at San
Felipe de Austin Oct. 1, 1832, at which
Stephen F. Austin was elected chairman
and a memorial addressed to both federal
and state governments was adopted ask-
ing repeal of the law passed by the Mex-
ican Congress in 1830, asking settlement
of certain land titles in East Texas, seek-
mg right to use the English language in
public business, the privilege of organ-
izing a militia, separation of Texas from
the state of Coahuila and certain other
Second San Felipe Convention.
Nothing came of the first convention
at San Felipe other than the further
arousing of distrust on the part of the
Mexicans, who were unfamiliar with
Anglo-American ideas of peaceful as-
sembly. When Santa Anna became
President early in 1833 another conven-
tion was called, meeting at San Felipe
de Austin April 1, 1833. This convention
adopted resolutions similar to those of
the first assembly and, in addition, drew
up a proposed State Constitution, the
Constitution being drafted by a commit-
tee headed by Sam Houston. Stephen F.
Austin headed a commission elected to
carry the new Constitution and petition
for reforms to Mexico City for approval.
Austin proceeded to Mexico City and.
after several months of delay, received
certain promises from Santa Anna and
started homeward. But prior to extract-
ing the promises from Santa Anna, he
had in a fit of impatience indiscreetly
addressed a letter to Texas friends advis-
ing them to go ahead with organization
of separate statehood, though authoriza-
tion was still lacking. The letter fell
into the hands of Mexican officials and
Austin was thrown into prison. After
fifteen months of imprisonment he was
released in 1835 and returned to Texas.
Austin had been genuinely friendly to-
ward Mexico; he had refused to assist in
the Fredonian rebellion and lent his in-
fluence against its success; he had been
conservative during the difficulties of
1832 and seemed sincerely desirous of ef-
fecting a settlement that would establish
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Texas Almanac, 1939-1940, book, 1939; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117163/m1/65/: accessed September 24, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.