Texas Almanac, 1939-1940 Page: 72
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72 THE TEXAS ALMANAC-1939.
War, to the organization of civil govern-
ment in Texas. Having attained political
security within the union, Legislature
and the Governor were faced with the
tremendous task of instituting state and
local government under the new Consti-
The first of Texas' many boundary
problems was settled during the adminis-
tration of Gov. P. Hansboro Bell (Dec.
21, 1849-Nov. 23, 1853). Texas after
winning its independence had laid claim
to all territory north and east of the Rio
Grande, from its mouth on the Gulf of
Mexico to its source in Southern Colo-
rado, and it claimed a vaguely defined
area even north of this point.
The difficulty was disposed of by a
provision of the Compromise of 1850 by
which Texas accepted $10,000,000 for its
claim to all land north and west of the
present boundary lines of the Trans-
Pecos region and Panhandle. Since that
time there have been minor disputes over
these boundaries, but the Compromise of
1850 settled definitely the claim of Texas
to half of what is today New Mexico, as
well as certain portions of Colorado,
Wyoming and Montana. The new state
was badly in need of the money because
a debt of more than $5,000,000 (large in
that day) hung over it. Bell did not fin-
,ish his second term, resigning to become
Congressman. He was succeeded briefly
by J. W. Henderson, Lieutenant Gov-
ernor, Nov. 23, 1853-Dec. 21, 1853.
Money for Public Schools.
The administration of Elisha M. Pease
(Dec. 21, 1853, to Dec. 21, 1857) wit-
nessed the establishment of the public
school permanent fund through the ap-
propriation of $2,000,000 of the $10,000,-
000 received from the United States un-
der the Compromise of 180 to school
purposes. Th is regarded by historians
as a step that kut the Pease gubernatori-
al administration on a par with the pres-
idential adm' istration of Lamar in fos-
tering education in Texas. Among the
other outstanding features of Pease's ad-
ministration were the passing of the first
law granting lands to railroads to en-
courage building in Texas, the so-called
Cart War in 1857 between Texas and
Mexican teamsters on the freight route
between San Antonio and the Gulf
ports, and the attainment of political im-
portance in Texas of the Know-Nothing
party. For his second term Pease ran in
opposition to the Know-Nothing party,
defeating its candidate, D. C. Dickson.
Increasing bitterness over the question
of slavery and secession clouded the ad-
ministration of Hardin R. Runnels (Dec.
21, 1857, to Dec. 21, 1859). It marked
also the passing of the only serious at-
tempt that Texas ever made to settle its
Indian population within its own
bounds, the two reservations near Fort
Belknap being abandoned.
Runnels was defeated in the elections
of 1859 by Sam Houston. Houston and
Thomas J. Rusk had been named the
first United States Senators in 1846.
Houston, after re-election to a second
term, left his seat in March, 1859. He
had in the meantime run against Run-
nels for Governor in 1857, but lost. In
his victory in 1859, Houston was aided
materially by support of the Know-
Nothing party. This party, which op-
posed foreign immigration and had as
its slogan, 'America for the Americans,"
gained considerable strength in the
United States and in Texas immediately
prior to the Civil War.
Beginning Dec. 21, 1859, Houston
served until March 16, 1861, when his
office was declared vacant by the State
Government following secession and re-
organization under the Confederacy.
Houston was deposed because he re-
fused to take the new oath of allegiance;
like many other Southerners of his day,
Houston was a Unionist. Texas had se-
ceded by action of the secession conven-
tion Jan. 28, 1861, and ratification by the
people Feb. 23. Houston's last official
service to Texas was beset by trouble in-
cluding the growing boldness of the In-
dians on the west and the incursion of
the Mexican freebooter, Juan Cortinas,
into the Lower Rio Grander where he
captured and held several points, includ-
ing Brownsville, before being driven back
into Mexico by the Texas Rangers.
When Houston was deposed, Edward
Clarke, who had served as Lieutenant
Governor, was sworn in and served
through the remainder of 1861 (March
16, 1861, to Nov. 7, 1861), supervising
military organization of the stdte under
the Confederacy. Clarke stood for re-
election, but was defeated by a narrow
margin by Frank R. Lubbock.
TEXAS IN THE CONFEDERACY.
Because of its isolated position Texas
was the scene of relatively little mili-
tary action during the Civil War. The
Lubbock administration (Nov. 7, 1861-
Nov. 5, 1863) witnessed most of Texas'
participation. An expedition under Gen.
.H.. Sibley early in 1862 captured
Santa Fe N. M., and surrounding ter-
ritory. However, this thrust proved un-
successful because of.the arrival of su-
perior numbers of United States troops
and the difficulties of operating distance
from base of supplies.
The most important engagements of
the war probably were the capture and
recapture of Galveston, the principal
port of the state. The Texas coast was
blockaded from the beginning of the
war, and on Oct. 4, 1862, Galveston was
captured. On Jan. 1, 1863, however, the
Texas forces under General Magruder re-
captured GalveSton, attacking simultane-
ously by land and sea. The attack from
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Texas Almanac, 1939-1940, book, 1939; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117163/m1/74/: accessed August 17, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.