Texas Almanac, 1939-1940 Page: 78
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78 THE TEXAS ALMANAC-1939.
between 1900 and 1910, jumped from
$92,894,433 to $272,895,635. The number
of farms in the same ten years increased
from 352,190 to 417,770.
The two-term administration of O. B.
Colquitt (Jan. 19, 1911, to Jan. 19, 1915)
was characterized politically by the
coming to boiling point of the prohibi.
tion issue in the state. There had been.
frequent and sharp strife over this issue
during the preceding administrations, but
it became the dominating issue with the
advent of the Colquitt administration.
A constitutional amendment for state-
wide prohibition had been submitted at
an election Aug. 4, 1887, and had lost by
a vote of 220,637 to 129,270.
However, prohibition sentiment had
spread rapidly as evidenced by the suc-
cesses of the "drys" in local option elec-
tions. In the Democratic primary July
25, 1908, the question of submission of
prohibition was submitted to vote. It
carried by a vote of 145,530 to 141,441,
but the following Legislature failed to
submit the question. The campaign of
1910 logically centered about the prohibi-
tion question and Oscar B. Colquitt, pro-
hibition opponent, led the field; Prohi-
bition was submitted in July, 1911, how-
ever, and lost by a vote of 237,130 to
230,150. Prohibition was again the lead-
ing question in the campaign of 1912,
when Colquitt defeated William F. Ram-
sey in a memorable race which resulted
in a vote of 218,812 to 177,183.
Colquitt's administration was notable
for its economy in state fiscal affairs, re-
form in the penal system, prompt steps
to protect the border along the Rio
Grande which was menaced by revolu-
tion and lack of stable government in
Mexico, and by passage of legislation of
permanent effect, including the first
eight-hour labor law, the first law regu-
lating number of hours of women labor-
ers, a child labor law, workmen's com-
pensation act, home rule act for cities of
more than 5,000, and certain judicial re-
The administration of James E. Fer-
guson (Jan. 19, 1915, to Aug. 25, 1917)
brought Texas more political turbulence
than any administration since the Civil
War, and brought to Texas the issue of
"Fergusonism," which was before the
people almost continually from 1915 until
Mrs. Ferguson's retirement from her sec-
ond term as Governor in January, 1935.
In his first primary campaign, in 1914,
Ferguson defeated Thomas H. Ball, 237,-
062 to 191,558. Prohibition was the lead-
ing issue, and the campaign was one of
the most spectacular m the history of
the state. Aside from his opposition to
prohibition, Ferguson carried in his
platform demands for greater protection
of farm tenants against landlords, a state
warehouse system and certain other farm
measures. This platform, which was
largely enacted into law during his first
administration, though partly nullified
by the courts later, was the basis of Fer-
guson's continuing popularity among the
tenant farmers, who constituted through
almost twenty years of political ac-
tivity the nucleus of his widely recog-
nized "vest pocket" vote. Ferguson was
nominated for his second term over
Charles H. Morris by a vote of 240,561
to 174,611, and elected. Shortly after the
beginning of his second term, however,
stiff opposition arose to Ferguson poli-
cies and impeachment charges were
preferred against him in a special ses-
sion, called by Governor Ferguson him-
self, in August, 1917. There were twen-
ty-one charges alleging misconduct.
Tried before the Senate in September,
the Governor was found guilty on ten
charges and removed from office.
When Ferguson was removed from of-
fice, Lieut. Gov. William P. Hobby took
the chair. Hobby's administration (Aug.
25, 1917, to Jan. 18, 1921) continued
through the remainder of that term and
the following term to which Hobby was
elected. Although barred from holding
office, Ferguson ran against Hobby in
the primary of 1918, but was defeated,
461,479 to 217,012.
Political agitation over the Ferguson
issue, however, was overshadowed by
war activities. Almost from the begin-
ning of participation of the United
States in the world conflict, in April,
1917, Texas played a leading role in
training men for military service as well
as in civil affairs.
Texans in World War.
A strong and consistent Democratic
state, Texas and Texans came into the
limelight during the memorable Wilson
administration. Col. E. M. House became
known as the trusted adviser of the
President. Two other Texans, Albert S.
Burleson and Thomas W. Gregory, held
the Cabinet positions of Postmaster Gen-
eral and Attorney General, respectively.
Another man, a former Texan and form-
er president of the University of Texas,
David F. Houston, went from Missouri to
serve, first as Secretary of Agriculture
and later as Secretary of the Treasury.
More than 200,000 Texans saw service
during the World War. The mild winters
and dry climate of Texas brought to its
borders some of the principal training
camps of the nation, including Camp
Travis at San Antonio, Camp Bowie at
Fort Worth, Camp McArthur at Waco,
and Camp Logan at Houston. Texas was
also a center of training for army avia-
tion, with Kelly Field at San Antonio,
Love Field at Dallas, Ellington Field at
Houston, and several other smaller
fields. The Thirty-Sixth and Ninetieth,
Texas divisions, saw service at the
front and there were several Texas com-
panies in the Forty-Second. Fort Sam
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Texas Almanac, 1939-1940, book, 1939; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117163/m1/80/: accessed January 20, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.