Texas Almanac, 1939-1940 Page: 88
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THE TEXAS ALMANAC-1939.
Worth and Sherman. However, there has
been a westward infiltration of Negroes
-following the expansion of the cotton-
growing industry and the Negro is found
today scattered in small numbers through-
out the western part of the state. The
greatest density of Negro population is
found along the eastern border, there
being four counties in this area having
larger Negro than white population.
The following twelve counties of Texas
had 321,480 or 37 per cent of the Negro
population of the State in 1930:
Harris ..........72,603 Smith .........19,128
Dallas .........47,879 McLennan ......18,697
Jefferson .......33,022 Bowie .........15,961
Harrison ........29,409 Travis ..........15,832
Tarrant ........24,660 Navarro ........15,083
Bexar ..........19,447 Galveston .......14,759
Migration From Other States.
The future population increase in
Texas, above that which may be expected
from excess of birth rate over mortality
rate, must very largely be migration from
other states. In a table on the following
pages it is shown that in 1930 there were
1,129,348 Texans who were natives of
other states. This table also shows that
most of the migration from other states
has been from the other Southwestern
States--Louisiana, Oklahoma and Arkan-
sas, and from the states of the Old South.
Nevertheless, they show also a surpris-
ingly large number of natives of the
East and West North Central States.
Especially when compared with similar
statistics from the census of 1910 does the
increase of migration from the North
become apparent. There were, for exam-
ple, 70,510 native-born Georgians in Texas
m 1910 as against only 50,165 in 1930. The
number of native Tennesseeans dropped
from 134,702 to 102,489 in this interval;
Alabamans from 123,245 to 94,506. Most
of the states of the Old South show a
However, a remarkable stepping up of
migration from neighboring Southwest-
ern states and from Northern states is
shown. For example, there were only
29,490 native Oklahomans and 61,270
Louisianians in Texas in 1910 as com-
pared with 125,647 Oklahomans and 150,-
844 Louisianians in 1930. During this
twenty-year interval the number of na-
tive Missourians in Texas increased from
59,061 to 70,599; Kansans from 12,960 to
30,872, and Illinois residents from 34,952
to 43,030. Increases were shown in the
number of native-born from nearly all
the Northern states.
Shift in Trend of Migration.
This shift in the current of migration
into Texas has been brought about by the
release of Texas from the bondage of the
cotton industry. From the very begin-
ning of migration into Texas the cotton
farmer predominated, and after it became
certain that Texas was to be annexed as
a slave state this tendency increased.
After the Civil War the fertile, easily
cultivated prairies of Texas became a
land of promise for many cotton growers
from the Southeast. It brought to Texas
a tremendous increase in population but
it was unfortunate in one respect, namely
that it was to make of Texas for several
decades a one-crop, cotton-growing region.
During the last two decades a great
increase in the production of wheat, corn,
sorghums, fruits and vegetables on a
commercial scale, the expansion of dairy-
ing, poultry and stock farming industries,
a large increase in the production of
minerals and development of the manu-
facturing industries have been significant,
not only because they have provided a
greater and more stable means of liveli-
hood but also because they have made
Texas a land of opportunity for people
above as well as below Mason and Dixon's
The effect of this opening of opportu-
nity for people of the North is reflected
in the census figures on number of
Texans born in other states. In 1910 there
were 921,965, in 1920 the number had
declined to 886,806, but in 1930 the trend
had been reversed and the number had
reached a peak of 1,129,348. This gain
was due to increase of migration from the
North and Middle West.
Looking back over the history of Texas
it is seen that, although the state has had
great resources to offer the newcomer, it
had very many obstacles, most of which
have been cleared away.
There is basis for argument that the
increase in Texas population will acceler-
ate during the next two or three decades
rather than being retarded, despite the
fact that it is usual for the increase in
population of any state or nation to be
retarded in later stages of development.
Obstacles to Population Increase.
Texas, for a number of reasons, has
had to overcome obstructions to migra-
tion from other states. In the first place,
Texas was disadvantageously located for
rapid population increase in its early
development. The barrier of the great
lower Mississippi channel and its wilder-
ness valley made the route to Texas cir-
cuitous. Furthermore, Texas was directly
west of the Old South where there was
not the westward urge that existed in the
Northeastern states, the population of
which surged into the Middle West and
Northwest, causing these regions to
develop more rapidly than Texas.
Again, Texas' political affairs were a
handicap. The early chapters of Texas
history consisted of colonization under
the Republic of Mexico, revolution, uncer-
tain independent status, annexation to the
United States, difficulties with Mexico
leading to the Mexican War, secession
with the Confederacy, re-entrance to the
Union and Reconstruction. Thus for half
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Texas Almanac, 1939-1940, book, 1939; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117163/m1/90/: accessed April 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.