Texas Almanac, 1941-1942 Page: 55
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HISTORY OF TEXAS. 55
ful investigation by a government com-
mission, the site of Austin on the Colo-
rado had been selected for the capital
and a city established there despite its
frontier position. When the first Mexi-
can invasion of 1842 took place the seat
of government was moved back to
Houston by President Houston.
Fearing that Houston would be par-
tial to the city which bore his name, citi-
zens of Austin seized state papers and
held them. In December, 1842, Houston
sent a small company to seize the ar-
chives, but this force was driven from
the city after partially loading their wag-
ons, pursued and forced to return.
A few shots were fired during the en-
counter. Houston had ordered the ar-
chives sent to Washington-on-the-Brazos
and the seat of government was main-
tained there briefly, but returned to
Austin under President Anson Jones in
Regulators and Moderators.
A more serious disturbance broke out
in Eastern Texas in 1842, resulting from
charges of land fraud. Shelby County,
which then included a large portion of
East Texas besides the present Shelby
County, became two armed camps that
were known as the "Regulators" and
the "Moderators." A vendetta prevailed
for about two years, during which time
about fifty men were slain and courts
ceased to function. President Houston
succeeded in quieting the disturbance in
1844, but bitterness and ill effects lasted
for many years.
Another military project during the
second Houston administration was the
Snively expedition in the early part of
1843, which marched into New Mexico
for the purpose of capturing a Mexican
wagon train on the Santa Fe trail. The
Texans were successful but were cap-
tured in turn a few days later by a
United States detachment on the charge
that they were within the bounds of the
The last national election, held Sept.
2, 1844, resulted in the election of Anson
Jones as President over Gen. Edward
Burleson. Although Jones had generally
opposed annexation of Texas to the
United States, his administration was
largely devoted to issues involving an-
nexation and the winding up of the af-
fairs of the little Republic. Although
Texas had increased rapidly in popula-
tion and had attained security in its in-
dependence, partly through recognition
by a number of foreign powers, partly
through the proven ability of its volun-
teer forces and partly through the confu-
sion that prevailed in Mexico, its diffi-
culties nevertheless had steadily in-
The Republic began its existence with
a public debt of more than $1,000,000 and
saw this grow to nearly $8,000,000 in its
ten years of life. Lamar's military pol-
icy greatly increased the public debt.
The paper money issued by the new gov-
ernment depreciated quickly and the
money of the United States was more ac-
ceptable than that of Texas.
After Texas had obtained recognition
by a number of the leading world pow-
ers, no treaty with Mexico was ever
signed, although several attempts were
made by the Texas Government to reach
an agreement. An armistice was signed
in 1844, but this was annulled by Mexi-
co in 1845 when the treaty of annexa-
tion was signed.
A majority of Texans were for annexa-
tion to the United States from the be-
ginning of the Republic. At the first
election the subject of annexation was
submitted and the vote was almost unan-
imously favorable. In the United States
there was almost unanimous fa-
vorable sentiment in the South, but
there was much opposition in antislave
The race between Polk (Democrat)
and Clay (Whig) in 1844 centered about
the annexation issue, Polk favoring an-
nexation and winning the race. Tyler,
the incumbent, however, had the Treaty
of Annexation introduced in Congress in
the form of a resolution at the short ses-
sion preceding Polk's inauguration and
the action of Congress was favorable.
The provision of this document which
has been of greatest import to Texans
was that giving to the state the entire
public domain of the Republic. Another
provision which has occasioned much
discussion was that providing that the
State of Texas might at its discretion
divide itself into as many as five states.
President Anson Jones called the Texas
Congress in special session and annexa-
tion was given a favorable vote, follow-
ing which a convention called by the
President ratified annexation and wrote
a State Constitution, which the people
approved Oct. 13. Jones retired as Presi-
dent Feb. 16, 1846, succeeded by J.
Pinckney Henderson, first Governor of
Texas. On Dec. 29, 1845, the Congress of
the United States had accepted the new
State Constitution of Texas and this date
has been declared by the United States
Supreme Court as the actual date of an-
nexation. Texas became the twenty-
eighth state in the Union.
STATEHOOD PRIOR TO CIVIL WAR.
The flag of the United States replaced
the Lone Star banner over the Capitol at
Austin Feb. 16, 1846, with the inaugura-
tion of J. Pinckney Henderson, the first
Governor. The principal events of Hen-
derson's administration centered about
the Mexican War. Mexico had never re-
linquished its claim to Texas, although
internal dissension in that republic had
prevented it from military efforts to re-
subjugate the territory north of the Rio
Grande, other than the two invasions in
March and September of 1842. Shortly
after annexation of Texas Mexico
brought the issue to a crisis by breaking
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Texas Almanac, 1941-1942, book, 1941; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117164/m1/57/: accessed December 16, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.