Texas Almanac, 1941-1942 Page: 68
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68 TEXAS ALMANAC.-1941-42
convention-adopted flag in May, 1836, the se-
lection by a committee of fine including
Lorenzo de Zavala. This flag, consisting of
blue field and white star with the letters
T-E-X-A-S between the points of the star,
seems not to have been given more than mo-
mentary official recognition.
Battle Flags of Texas Revolution.
Prior to the adoption of the official flags,
many different banners had been raised in
the revolt against Mexico, largely the flags
of individual military units One of the first
among these was the flag raised at Gonzales
in reply to the demand of a Mexican detach-
ment from San Antonio for surrender of a
cannon. This white banner bearing a single
star, picture of a cannon and the inscription,
"come and take It," possibly can be desig-
nated as the first to fly during the Texas
Revolution. Another early flag embodying
the lone star idea was that designed by Mrs.
Sarah Dodson and presented to a company at
Harrisburg in September, 1835. It was tri-
colored-blue, white and red-with a white
star in the blue portion next to the flagstaff
A widely used flag during the year imme-
diately preceding the declaration of independ-
ence was the Mexican tri-color of green,
white and red, with the Mexican eagle, snake
and cactus omitted from the white stripe and
the figures 1824 inserted instead. This flag,
known as the 1824 flag, was adopted by col-
onists wishing to remain loyal to Mexico but
insisting on their rights under the Mexican
Constitution of 1824. It was one of several
flags flown oxer the Alamo.
Still another flag was that of the company
of Capt. William Brown of Velasco which
took part in the storming of San Antonio in
December, 1835 Brown's History states that
It consisted of "stripes like the United States
flag with Interlineation of the word, inde-
pendence, protected by a bloody sword firm-
ly clenched in the hand of an uplifted arm."
Apparently, this flag and that of Mrs. Dodson
were flown at Washington-on-the-Brazos dur-
ing the Independence Convention. The flag
of the company of Capt. William Scott of
Lynchburg, Texas, raised in the fall of 1835,
consisted of a blue field with white star and
the word, "independence." Apparently it was
designed by James L. McGahty. The flag
was flown at San Felipe and possibly at the
capture of San Antonio by the Texans in
December, 1835. A flag presented to Capt.
Moseley Baker's Company at San Felipe,
March 5, 1836, was described by a newspaper
of the time as "composed of the English
jack, showing the origin of the Anglo-Ameri-
cans, thirteen stripes, representing that most
of the colonists in Texas are from the United
States; and the star of Texas, the only state
in Mexico retaining the least spark of the
light of liberty, the tri-color is Mexican (red,
green and white) showing that we once be-
longed to that confederacy."
Famous among these early flags was that
designed by Joanna Troutman of Knoxville,
Ga , for Col. William Ward's Georgia Volun-
teers. It was presented in November, 1835,
consisting of white field with blue star and
the words, "Liberty or Death." Colonel
Ward's battalion landed at Velasco, marched
to Goliad, and later was captured at Refugio
and massacred with the Goliad heroes. The
famous flag of the New Orleans Greys, pre-
sented to them when they entered Texas at
the Sabine, was a blue field inscribed with
the name of the company. It was captured
by Santa Anna in the storming of the Alamo.
After nearly one hundred years it was dis-
covered recently in the National Museum of
Mexico. A solid red flag was that of the
company of Capt. Jack Shackelford which
came to Texas from Alabama. They were
known as the Alabama Red Rovers.
San Jacinto Battle Flag.
The flag flown at the Battle of San Jacinto
was that brought to Texas by Col. Sidney
Sherman with his volunteers from Newport,
Ky. The flag, consisting of a female figure,
liberty, in militant posture, on a field of
white, was presented to the company by Mrs
Sherman and other Newport women. After
the Battle of San Jacinto, this flag was pre-
sented by the Republic of Texas to Mrs. Sher-
man. After remaining in the possession of
the Sherman family many years, it was pre-
sented to the State of Texas. Restored, it
now hangs on the wall of the Hall of Repre-
sentatives in the Capitol at Austin.
The company of volunteers from Zanesville,
Ohio, brought to Texas a flag of blue with
gold star with the letters T-E-X-A-S between
the points. The flag of the company of Capt.
T. J. Morgan of Pennsylvania was a lone star
with the words, "Liberty or Death."
Flags of Pre-Revolutionary Revolts
The foregoing list includes the most promi-
nent of the flags used during the period of
the Revolution. Prior to the revolution a
number of independent flags were flown over
Texas Immediately preceding the revolution
the flag of the Fredonian Rebellion against
Mexico was raised by Hayden Edwards at
Nacogdoches, a red and white banner with
the words, "Independence, Freedom and Jus-
tice " (See p. 48.) During the era of the
filibusters and revolts against Spain, 1811-
1821, the flags of Luis Aury and Jean La
Fitte, privateers, were flown at Galveston.
Dr. James Long from Mississippi, in 1819,
hoisted a flag of red and white stripes, with
red field and white star. Possibly this was
the very first "lone star" flag. Most famous
of the flags of the era of filibusters was the
Green Flag of the Gutierrez-Magee Expedi-
tion. (See p. 45.) There is also the conten-
tion that Texas has a *seventh flag in the
red flag of the Comanche Indians. If both
Green and Red Flags are accepted it would,
of course, give Texas eight flags, instead of
the six usually mentioned.
How to Fly Texas
Following rules are from Acts of Forty-
Third Legislature, 1933 (p. 186, ch. 87)
Flown out-of-doors, the Texas flag must be
on flagpole or staff which is at least two and
one half times as long as the flag. It should
not be unfurled earlier than sunrise and
should be taken down not later than sunset.
It should not be left out in rain, snow or
other inclement weather. It should always
be hoisted briskly and lowered slowly It
should be flown with the white stripe upper-
most except in case of distress. When the
flag is displayed against a wall, the blue
field should be at the flag's own right (ob-
server's left) The Texas flag should be dis-
played on all state memorial days; it should
fly at every school on every regular school
The Texas flag should be on the marching
left in a procession in which the flag of the
United States is carried; its staff should be
behind the staff of the flag of the United
States when the two are displayed with
crossed staffs The Texas flag should be
underneath the national flag when the two
are flown from the same halyard. When
*According to research of Mrs Mary Jordan
Atkinson at the University of Texas which indi-
cates that the Comanches frequently flew a red
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Texas Almanac, 1941-1942, book, 1941; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117164/m1/70/: accessed May 27, 2018), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.