Texas Almanac, 1943-1944 Page: 41
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present structure of the Alamo was not built
until about 1754 and is not located on the
site of de Valera mission.
French from Louisiana drove Spanish from
missions in vicinity of Nacogdoches
Dominion of Spain definitely established
between the Rio Grande and the Riviere
Rouge (Red River) by the expedition of
Marquis de Aguayo who established new
missions and presidios and strengthened old
ones. Los Adaes became capital of Texas
Canary Island families were brought to
Texas to further strengthen Spanish authoi-
ity. These families and their descendants
played a large part in subsequent Texas
Arroyo Hondo, east of the Sabine River,
temporarily fixed as eastern boundary of
Fort founded by Spanish on present site
of Goliad. This was Mission La Bahia del
San Saba Mission founded on San Saba
River near present Menard, at request of
Apaches who were being pressed by the
Comanches. This mission was later attacked
and destroyed by the Comanches
France cedes Louisiana, including all claims
to East Texhs, to Spain
Spanish withdraw from East Texas, follow-
ing cession of Louisiana to Spain
Spanish colonists under Antonio Gil y
Barbo, returned to East Texas established
themselves on present site of Nacogdoches.
This marked the second and permanent
founding of Nacogdoches.
Refugio, last mission, established in Texas.
Philip Nolan made expedition into Texas,
penetrating to vicinity of Waco.
Nolan killed by Spanish soldiery during
second expedition into Texas.
Louisiana purchased by the United States
Bernardo Gutierrez and Augustus Magee
with armed force enter Texas from Louisiana
with intention of setting up independent re-
Gutierrez-Magee expedition captured Nac-
ogdoches, Goliad and San Antonio, Magee
having met with mysterious death at Goliad.
Revolutionists defeated by Spaniards under
Arredondo at Battle of Medina, southwest of
San Antonio, Aug. 18. For a few months,
Spanish sovereignty in Texas had been com-
pletely deposed. A formal declaration of
independence had been issued and a constitu-
tion written. The capital of the new state
was at San Antonio. However, dissension
had arisen among the members of the expe-
dition and Gutierrez had been deposed from
leadership. This expedition, which was known
as the Republican Army of the North, flew
the Green Flag which is given by some his-
torians as the seventh Texas flag.
Luis Aury established himself at Galveston
and carried on successful privateering busi-
ness until he met defeat while on an expedi-
tion against Spain in Mexico. Jean LaFitte
took over Aury's business of privateering and
did a thriving business from 1817 to 1821.
Some of his men attacked vessels flying U.S.
flag and his Galveston base was closed by
U S. Navy In 1821.
James Long led expedition into Texas for
purpose of setting up independent republic
Captured Nacogdoches and went on to Gal-
veston, but his expedition was dispersed Led
second expedition, 1821, from base at Point
Bolivar and captured Goliad, but was later
captured there, sent to Mexico where he was
killed. His wife, Jane Herbert Wilkinson
Long, played part in later Texas history
Often called "Mother of Texas."
Moses Austin, Journeying from Missouri to
San Antonio, was given permission by Span-
ish Governor to found a colony in Texas
Died after long overland trip back to his
home in Missouri Dying request was that
his son, Stephen F. Austin, carry out his plan
to colonize Texas. Austin's success at San
Antonio was due largely to friendly inter-
cession of Baron de Bastrop.
Stephen F Austin visited San Antonio in
August and came to agreement with Governor
Martinez for establishment of a colony. The
enterprise had been advertised in the United
States and first settlements were made late
in this year at Washrngton-on-Brazos and
Columbus. In meantime, Austin's agreement
was annulled by Mexico's winning of inde-
Dendence from Spain.
Austin spent weary months in Mexico en-
deavoring to get renewal of his grant for
establishing a colony. Confusion in Mexico
City. Stream of immigration from United
States into Austin's colony continued despite
Jean LaFitte forced to abandon Galveston
Austin reached agreement with Mexican
Government after passage of new colonization
act in January, which provided for coloniza-
tion under grants to men (empresarios) who
contracted to settle stated number of families
on lbnds received It came to be known as
the empresario system. Under it most of the
Texas colonies were established Austin l e-
turned to Texas. Laid out San Felipe de
Austin on Brazos (in present Austin County)
as seat of colony
Adoption of the Constitution of 1824 by
Mexico. first constitutional government in
Grant to establish colony west of lower
Colorado given Green DeWitt of Missouri
Gonzales established as seat. He was one of
the more successful of the empresarlos
Hayden Edwards given grant in icinity of
Nacogdoches which was already seat of colony
established by Gil y Barbo In this and next
few years grants were given Benjamin Milam,
James Wilkinson, Sterling Clack Robertson,
Joseph Vehlin, Robert Leftwich, David Bur-
net, McMullen & McGloin, and Power &
Hewitson, all of whom were from the United
States, and sever al Mexican empresarios of
whom Martin de Leon and Lorenzo de Zavala
were the most successful.
On December 16. Texas declared independ-
ent by Hayden Edwards under name of Re-
public of Fredonia. Edwards had come into
conflict with the original settlers near Nacog-
doches who had been sustained in their claims
by Mexican authorities at San Antonio.
Fredonia Rebellion collapsed. Edwards
lands granted to Lorenzo de Zavala, David G.
Burnet and others
Constitution of Coahuila-Texas adopted. It
did not grant certain inalienable rights such
as trial by Jury and the right of ball, and
the Catholic faith required of settlers who
were, largely, Protestants.
Beginning of Mexican opposition to further
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Texas Almanac, 1943-1944, book, 1943; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117165/m1/43/: accessed May 28, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.