Texas Almanac, 1943-1944 Page: 42
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TEXAS ALMANAC -1943-1944.
American colonization of Texas. President
Guerrero of Mexico freed slaves of Mexico,
nearly all of whom had entered with Ameri-
can colonists. Decree recalled later in year.
Law of April 6 made effective, practically
forbidding further American colonization of
Texas, providing for sending of Mexican con-
victs to Texas, sending Mexican soldiers into
Texas; establishing customs houses at ports
to tax Texas trade with New Orleans.
To enforce customs levies, all ports closed
Battle of Velasco, June 26
Battle of Anahuac, July 13.
Spanish garrison driven from Nacogdoches
during first part of August.
First convention at San Felipe de Austin,
On April 1, second convention of San Felipe
held; Stephen F. Austin chosen to go to
Mexico City with petition from Texas for
separate government from Coahuila. State
Austin imprisoned in Mexico. remained in
prison fifteen months.
Santa Anna ordered arrest of William B.
Travis and others, and occupation of Texas
by Mexican troops ordered.
Austin released from prison in Mexico and
arrived in Texas in September
On Sept. 19, call to arms sent to colonists
Battle of Gonzales, Oct 2, followed attempt
of Mexicans to take cannon in possession of
colonists Battle sometimes called "Texas
Stephen F. Austin made commander of ex-
pedition against San Antonio, Oct. 11.
Goliad captured with military stores, Oct. 9.
Engagement between Americans and Mexi-
cans near Mission Concepcion, Oct. 28
Gen. Edward Burleson succeeded Austin as
commander of expedition at San Antonio.
Meeting of colonists at San Felipe, Nov. 3,
at which provisional government was formed,
Henry Smith elected provincial Governor,
Sam Houston elected commander of army,
and delegation elected, including Stephen F.
Austin, to seek aid in the United States.
Grass fight near San Antonio, Nov. 26.
San Antonio captured by volunteers under
command of Col. Ben Milam from Mexicans
under Gen. Cos, Dec. 5-9. Milam killed during
Texas declared a free and sovereign state
at a local meeting held at Goliad, Dec. 20
This was the more notable of several local
conventions that declared Texas independent,
prior to the Convention of March 2.
Convention met at Washington-on-the-
Brazos, March 1. Declaration of Independ-
ence from Mexico adopted, March 2, Constitu.
tion written, temporary government formed,
David G. Burnet elected provisional Presi-
dent and Lorenzo de Zavala, Vice-President
Alamo falls, March 6. William Barrett
Travis, James Bowie, Davy Crockett and
James B. Bonham among those killed.
F. W. Johnson and James Grant killed by
troops under Gen. Urrea, Feb. 27 at San
Patricio, and March 2 at Agua Dulce, re-
Scouting party under command of Capt.
Amon B. King surprised by Mexican army
and all but a few were killed or captured,
Lt. Col. William Ward defended Refugio
and withdrew toward Victoria under cover of
night, March 14
Captain King, and those of his scouting
party who surrendered, slaughtered by order
of Colonel Urrea near Refugio March 16
Battle of Coleto, March 19 and 20, Col.
James W. Fannin surrenders.
Fannin's troops massacred at Goliad, March
27. Colonel Ward included in those slain.
Houston retreats from position on Colorado
above Columbus, March 25.
Houston encamps near Hempstead, March
28, and spends two weeks drilling soldiers.
Santa Anna advances, arriving at San Fe-
lipe, April 7.
Houston leaves banks of Brazos, April 13,
and arrives at Harrisburg, April 18.
Texans take position opposite Santa Anna
at confluence of the San Jacinto and Buffalo
Bayou, April 20
Battle of San Jacinto, April 21, Mexican
army dispersed. General Santa Anna captured
Treaty of Velasco signed between President
Burned and Gen Santa Anna, May 14
First election held, Sept 5, adopting Con-
stitution of March. electing Sam Houston,
President. and requesting annexation to the
United States. Houston named Stephen F.
Austin Secretary of State
First Congress of Texas met, Oct. 3, at
Inauguration of Sam Houston to succeed
David G. Burnet as President of Texas, be-
ginning of constitutional government under
Stephen F. Austin, "Father of Texas,"
died, Dec. 27.
Texas recognized as independent nation by
General land office established to handle
Homestead law passed which provided that
a homestead could not be taken for debt other
than debt contracted in payment for the
Second national election. Sept. 3, at which
Mirabeau B. Lamar chosen President, taking
office Dec. 10. A more aggressive policy along
the border against Mexico and against the
Indians characterized his administration.
Attempt to establish the Republic of the
Rio Grande, September, 1839, to December,
Cherokee War started because of Lamar's
Impatience with the Indians. Chief Bowles,
Cherokee Indian, killed during this war. Cher-
okees driven from East Texas.
Congress passed law providing three leagues
of land for each county's school fund in addi-
tion to a grant of fifty leagues for two uni-
versities for the Republic. Lamar's work on
this and other benefits to education brought
him the name, the "Father of Education in
Texas." A sentence from his message to
Congress in 1838, "The cultivated mind is the
guardian genius of democracy," became the
slogan of Texas advocates of education.
Council House Fight started between whites
and Indians at San Antonio. Resulted in the
killing of the Indians who had brought white
prisoners to exchange for Indian prisoners
held by whites, March 19.
Linnville raid in which settlers were driven
from their homes by Indians and sought
refuge in boats in the bay, Aug 5.
Indians overtaken and decisively defeated
in the Battle of Plum Creek, near Lockhart,
Aug. 12. The volunteer Americans were led
in this fight by Gen. Felix Huston, Col.
Edward Burleson, Capt. Mathew Caldwell,
Rutersville College established in Fayette
County. First institution of higher education
in Texas. Was later abandoned.
President Lamar sent out expedition under
Gen. Hugh McLeod to establish jurisdiction
over New Mexico. The Santa Fe Expedition
was captured and survivors marched to Mex-
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Texas Almanac, 1943-1944, book, 1943; Dallas, Texas. (texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth117165/m1/44/: accessed April 25, 2017), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, texashistory.unt.edu; crediting Texas State Historical Association.